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Indications And Usage
TILIA Fe is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect to use oral contraceptives as a method of contraception. TILIA Fe is indicated for the treatment of moderate acne vulgaris in females, ≥15 years of age, who have no known contraindications to oral contraceptive therapy, desire oral contraception, have achieved menarche, and are unresponsive to topical anti-acne medications. TILIA Fe should be used for the treatment of acne only if the patient desires an oral contraceptive for birth control and plans to stay on it for at least 6 months. Oral contraceptives are highly effective for pregnancy prevention. Table 2 lists the typical accidental pregnancy rates for users of combination oral contraceptives and other methods of contraception. The efficacy of these contraceptive methods, except sterilization, depends upon the reliability with which they are used. Correct and consistent use of methods can result in lower failure rates. Table 2. Percentage of Women Experiencing an Unintended Pregnancy During the First Year of Typical Use and the First Year of Perfect Use of Contraception and the Percentage Continuing Use at the End of the First Year. United States. % of Women Experiencing an Unintended Pregnancy within the First Year of Use % of Women Continuing Use at One Year‡ Method Typical Use* Perfect Use† (1) (2) (3) (4) Chance§ 85 85 Spermicides¶ 26 6 40 Periodic Abstinence 25 63 Calendar 9 Ovulation Method 3 Symptothermal#Þ 2 Post-ovulation 1 Capß Parous Women 40 26 42 Nulliparous Women 20 9 56 Sponge Parous Women 40 20 42 Nulliparous Women 20 9 56 Diaphragmß 20 6 56 Withdrawal 19 4 Condomà Female (Reality) 21 5 56 Male 14 3 61 Pill 5 71 Progestin only 0.5 Combined 0.1 IUD Progesterone T 2.0 1.5 81 Copper T380A 0.8 0.6 78 LNg 20 0.1 0.1 81 Depo-Provera® 0.3 0.3 70 Norplant® and Norplant-2® 0.05 0.05 88 Female Sterilization 0.5 0.5 100 Male Sterilization 0.15 0.10 100 Emergency Contraceptives Pills: Treatment initiated within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse reduces the risk of pregnancy by at least 75%è . Lactational Amenorrhea Method: LAM is a highly effective, temporary method of contraception.ð Source: Trussell J, The Essentials of Contraception. In Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Stewart F, Cates W, Stewart GK, Kowel D, Guest F, Contraceptive Technology: Seventeenth Revised Edition. New York NY: Irvington Publishers, 1998. * Among typical couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason. † Among couples who initiate use of a method (not necessarily for the first time) and who use it perfectly (both consistently and correctly), the percentage who experience an accidental pregnancy during the first year if they do not stop use for any other reason. ‡ Among couples attempting to avoid pregnancy, the percentage who continue to use a method for 1 year. § The percentages becoming pregnant in columns (2) and (3) are based on data from populations where contraception is not used and from women who cease using contraception in order to become pregnant. Among such populations, about 89% become pregnant within one year. This estimate was lowered slightly (to 85%) to represent the percent who would become pregnant within one year among women now relying on reversible methods of contraception if they abandoned contraception altogether. ¶ Foams, creams, gels, vaginal suppositories, and vaginal film. #Þ Cervical mucus (ovulation) method supplemented by calendar in the pre-ovulatory and basal body temperature in the post-ovulatory phases. ß With spermicidal cream or jelly. à Without spermicides. è The treatment schedule is one dose within 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, and a second dose 12 hours after the first dose. The Food and Drug Administration has declared the following brands of oral contraceptives to be safe and effective for emergency contraception: Ovral® (1 dose is 2 white pills), Alesse® (1 dose is 5 pink pills), Nordette® or Levlen® (1 dose is 4 light-orange pills), Lo/Ovral® (1 dose is 4 white pills), Triphasil® or Tri-Levlen® (1 dose is 4 yellow pills). ð However, to maintain effective protection against pregnancy, another method of contraception must be used as soon as menstruation resumes, the frequency or duration of breastfeeds is reduced, bottle feeds are introduced, or the baby reaches 6 months of age. TILIA Fe was evaluated for the treatment of acne vulgaris in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, Phase 3, six (28-day) cycle studies. A total of 296 patients received TILIA Fe and 295 received placebo. Mean age at enrollment for both groups was 24 years. At six months each study demonstrated a statistically significant difference between TILIA Fe and placebo for mean change from baseline in lesion counts (see Table 3 and Figure 2). Each study also demonstrated overall treatment success in the investigator’s global evaluation. Patients with severe androgen excess were not studied. Table 3. Acne Vulgaris Indication Pooled Data 376-403 and 376-404 Observed Means at Six Months and at Baseline* Intent To Treat Population TILIA Fe N = 296 Placebo N = 295 Difference in Counts Between TILIA Fe and Placebo at Six Months (95% CI)† Number of Lesions Counts % reduction Counts % reduction INFLAMMATORY LESIONS Baseline Mean 29 29 Six Month Mean 14 52% 17 41% 3 (±2) NON-INFLAMMATORY LESIONS Baseline Mean 44 43 Six Month Mean 27 38% 32 25% 5 (±3.5) TOTAL LESIONS Baseline Mean 74 72 Six Month Mean 42 43% 49 32% 7 (±5) *Numbers rounded to nearest integer † Limits for 95% Confidence Interval; not adjusted for baseline differences TILIA Fe users who started with about 74 acne lesions had about 42 lesions after 6 months of treatment. Placebo users who started with about 72 acne lesions had about 49 lesions after the same duration of treatment. Figure 2. Mean Percent Reduction in Total Lesion Counts From Baseline to Each 28-Day Cycle and Mean Total Lesion Counts at Each Cycle Following Administration of TILIA Fe and Placebo (Statistically significant differences were not found in both studies individually until cycle 6) Figure 2. Mean Percent Reduction in Total Lesion Counts From Baseline to Each 28-Day Cycle and Mean Total Lesion Counts at Each Cycle Following Administration of TILIA Fe and Placebo (Statistically significant differences were not found in both studies individually until cycle 6)
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Oral contraceptives should not be used in women who currently have the following conditions: Thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders A past history of deep vein thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders Cerebral vascular or coronary artery disease Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast Carcinoma of the endometrium or other known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding Cholestatic jaundice of pregnancy or jaundice with prior pill use Hepatic adenomas or carcinomas Known or suspected pregnancy
An increased risk of the following serious adverse reactions has been associated with the use of oral contraceptives (see WARNINGS section):Thrombophlebitis Arterial thromboembolism Pulmonary embolism Myocardial infarction Cerebral hemorrhage Cerebral thrombosis Hypertension Gallbladder disease Hepatic adenomas or benign liver tumors There is evidence of an association between the following conditions and the use of oral contraceptives, although additional confirmatory studies are needed: Mesenteric thrombosis Retinal thrombosis The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving oral contraceptives and are believed to be drug-related: Nausea Vomiting Gastrointestinal symptoms (such as abdominal cramps and bloating) Breakthrough bleeding Spotting Change in menstrual flow Amenorrhea Temporary infertility after discontinuation of treatment Edema Melasma which may persist Breast changes: tenderness, enlargement, secretion Change in weight (increase or decrease) Change in cervical erosion and secretion Diminution in lactation when given immediately postpartum Cholestatic jaundice Migraine Rash (allergic) Mental depression Reduced tolerance to carbohydrates Vaginal candidiasis Change in corneal curvature (steepening) Intolerance to contact lenses The following adverse reactions have been reported in users of oral contraceptives and the association has been neither confirmed nor refuted: Pre-menstrual syndrome Cataracts Changes in appetite Cystitis-like syndrome Headache Nervousness Dizziness Hirsutism Loss of scalp hair Erythema multiforme Erythema nodosum Hemorrhagic eruption Vaginitis Porphyria Impaired renal function Hemolytic uremic syndrome Budd-Chiari syndrome Acne Changes in libido Colitis
8. Drug Interactions Effects of Other Drugs on Oral Contraceptives Rifampin: Metabolism of both norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol is increased by rifampin. A reduction in contraceptive effectiveness and increased incidence of breakthrough bleeding and menstrual irregularities have been associated with concomitant use of rifampin. Anticonvulsants: Anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine, have been shown to increase the metabolism of ethinyl estradiol and/or norethindrone, which could result in a reduction in contraceptive effectiveness. Antibiotics: Pregnancy while taking oral contraceptives has been reported when the oral contraceptives were administered with antimicrobials such as ampicillin, tetracycline, and griseofulvin. However, clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not demonstrated any consistent effect of antibiotics (other than rifampin) on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids. Atorvastatin: Coadministration of atorvastatin and an oral contraceptive increased AUC values for norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol by approximately 30% and 20%, respectively. St. John’s Wort: Herbal products containing St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) may induce hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450) and p-glycoprotein transporter and may reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. This may also result in breakthrough bleeding. Other: Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma ethinyl estradiol concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation. A reduction in contraceptive effectiveness and increased incidence of breakthrough bleeding has been suggested with phenylbutazone. Effects of Oral Contraceptives on Other Drugs Oral contraceptive combinations containing ethinyl estradiol may inhibit the metabolism of other compounds. Increased plasma concentrations of cyclosporine, prednisolone, and theophylline have been reported with concomitant administration of oral contraceptives. In addition, oral contraceptives may induce the conjugation of other compounds. Decreased plasma concentrations of acetaminophen and increased clearance of temazepam, salicylic acid, morphine, and clofibric acid have been noted when these drugs were administered with oral contraceptives.