This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Tekturna safely and effectively. Before taking Tekturna please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Tekturna.
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible. ( 5.1 , 8.1 ) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. ( 5.1 , 8.1 ) WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible. ( 5.1 , 8.1 ) Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus. ( 5.1 , 8.1 )
Indications And Usage
Tekturna is a renin inhibitor (RI) indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adults and in pediatric patients weighing 50 kg or greater who are at least 6 years of age, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. ( 1.1 ) 1.1 Hypertension Tekturna is indicated for the treatment of hypertension in adults and in pediatric patients weighing 50 kg or greater who are at least 6 years of age and older to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with Tekturna. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than 1 drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality have also been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (e.g., patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
150 mg light pink biconvex round tablet, imprinted NVR/IL (Side 1/Side 2). 300 mg light red biconvex ovaloid round tablet, imprinted NVR/IU (Side 1/Side 2). Tablets: 150 mg, 300 mg ( 3 )
Do not use Tekturna with ARBs or ACEIs in patients with diabetes [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ) and Clinical Studies ( 14.3 )]. Tekturna is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any of the components [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )]. Tekturna is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age because of the risk of high aliskiren exposures identified in juvenile animals due to immaturity of transporters and metabolic enzymes [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4 )]. Do not use with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in patients with diabetes. ( 4 ) Hypersensitivity to any of the components. ( 4 ) Tekturna is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age. ( 4 )
Warning and Cautions
Avoid concomitant use with ARBs or ACEIs particularly in patients with renal impairment [creatinine clearance (CrCl) <60 mL/min]. ( 5.2 , 5.4 ) Anaphylactic Reactions and Head and Neck Angioedema. ( 5.3 ) Hypotension: Correct imbalances in volume and/or salt depleted patients. ( 5.4 ) Impaired Renal Function: Monitor serum creatinine periodically. ( 5.5 ) Hyperkalemia: Monitor potassium levels periodically. ( 5.6 ) 5.1 Fetal Toxicity Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, hypotension, renal failure, and death. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )]. 5.2 Renal Impairment/Hyperkalemia/Hypotension when Tekturna is Given in Combination with ARBs or ACEIs Tekturna is contraindicated in patients with diabetes who are receiving ARBs or ACEIs because of the increased risk of renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In general, avoid combined use of Tekturna with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) less than 60 mL/min [see Contraindications ( 4 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 ) and Clinical Studies ( 14.3 )] . 5.3 Anaphylactic Reactions and Head and Neck Angioedema Hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylactic reactions and angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis and/or larynx have been reported in patients treated with Tekturna and has necessitated hospitalization and intubation. This may occur at any time during treatment and has occurred in patients with and without a history of angioedema with ACEIs or angiotensin receptor antagonists. Anaphylactic reactions have been reported from postmarketing experience with unknown frequency. If angioedema involves the throat, tongue, glottis or larynx, or if the patient has a history of upper respiratory surgery, airway obstruction may occur and be fatal. Patients who experience these effects, even without respiratory distress, require prolonged observation and appropriate monitoring measures since treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient to prevent respiratory involvement. Prompt administration of subcutaneous epinephrine solution 1:1000 (0.3 mL to 0.5 mL) and measures to ensure a patent airway may be necessary. Discontinue Tekturna immediately in patients who develop anaphylactic reactions or angioedema, and do not readminister [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ) and Contraindications ( 4 )]. 5.4 Hypotension Symptomatic hypotension may occur after initiation of treatment with Tekturna in patients with marked volume depletion, patients with salt depletion, or with combined use of Tekturna and other agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The volume or salt depletion should be corrected prior to administration of Tekturna, or the treatment should start under close medical supervision. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, which usually can be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized. 5.5 Impaired Renal Function Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with Tekturna. Changes in renal function, including acute renal failure, can be caused by drugs that affect the RAAS. Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the RAAS (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) or patients receiving ARB, ACEI or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), including selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors), therapy may be at particular risk for developing acute renal failure on Tekturna [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6 ), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3 )] . Consider withholding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant decrease in renal function. 5.6 Hyperkalemia Monitor serum potassium periodically in patients receiving Tekturna. Drugs that affect the RAAS can cause hyperkalemia. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes, combination use with ARBs or ACEIs [see Contraindications ( 4 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3 )] , NSAIDs, or potassium supplements or potassium sparing diuretics. 5.7 Cyclosporine or Itraconazole When Tekturna was given with cyclosporine or itraconazole, the blood concentrations of aliskiren were significantly increased. Avoid concomitant use of Tekturna with cyclosporine or itraconazole [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )] .
Most common adverse reaction: diarrhea (incidence 2.3%) ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Noden Pharma USA Inc. at 1-844-399-5701 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label: Fetal Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] Anaphylactic Reactions and Head and Neck Angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adult Hypertension Data described below reflect the evaluation of the safety of Tekturna in more than 6,460 patients, including over 1,740 treated for longer than 6 months, and more than 1,250 patients for longer than 1 year. In placebo-controlled clinical trials, discontinuation of therapy due to a clinical adverse event, including uncontrolled hypertension, occurred in 2.2% of patients treated with Tekturna versus 3.5% of patients given placebo. These data do not include information from the ALTITUDE study which evaluated the use of aliskiren in combination with ARBs or ACEIs [see Contraindications ( 4 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ), and Clinical Studies ( 14.3 )]. Angioedema: Two cases of angioedema with respiratory symptoms were reported with Tekturna use in the clinical studies. Two other cases of periorbital edema without respiratory symptoms were reported as possible angioedema and resulted in discontinuation. The rate of these angioedema cases in the completed studies was 0.06%. In addition, 26 other cases of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body were reported with Tekturna use including 4 leading to discontinuation. In the placebo-controlled studies, however, the incidence of edema involving the face, hands, or whole body was 0.4% with Tekturna compared with 0.5% with placebo. In a long-term active-control study with Tekturna and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) arms, the incidence of edema involving the face, hand or whole body was 0.4% in both treatment arms [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )]. Gastrointestinal: Tekturna produces dose-related gastrointestinal (GI) adverse reactions. Diarrhea was reported by 2.3% of patients at 300 mg, compared to 1.2% in placebo patients. In women and the elderly (age 65 years and older) increases in diarrhea rates were evident starting at a dose of 150 mg daily, with rates for these subgroups at 150 mg comparable to those seen at 300 mg for men or younger patients (all rates about 2.0% to 2.3%). Other GI symptoms included abdominal pain, dyspepsia, and gastroesophageal reflux, although increased rates for abdominal pain and dyspepsia were distinguished from placebo only at 600 mg daily. Diarrhea and other GI symptoms were typically mild and rarely led to discontinuation. Cough: Tekturna was associated with a slight increase in cough in the placebo-controlled studies (1.1% for any Tekturna use versus 0.6% for placebo). In active-controlled trials with ACE inhibitor (ramipril, lisinopril) arms, the rates of cough for the Tekturna arms were about one-third to one-half the rates in the ACE inhibitor arms. Seizures: Single episodes of tonic-clonic seizures with loss of consciousness were reported in 2 patients treated with Tekturna in the clinical trials. One of these patients did have predisposing causes for seizures and had a negative electroencephalogram (EEG) and cerebral imaging following the seizures (for the other patient EEG and imaging results were not reported). Tekturna was discontinued and there was no rechallenge. Other adverse effects with increased rates for Tekturna compared to placebo included rash (1% versus 0.3%), elevated uric acid (0.4% versus 0.1%), gout (0.2% versus 0.1%) and renal stones (0.2% versus 0%). Aliskiren's effect on ECG intervals was studied in a randomized, double-blind, placebo and active-controlled (moxifloxacin), 7-day repeat dosing study with Holter-monitoring and 12 lead ECGs throughout the interdosing interval. No effect of aliskiren on QT interval was seen. Pediatric Hypertension Aliskiren has been evaluated for safety in 267 pediatric hypertensive patients 6 to 17 years of age; including 208 patients treated for 52 weeks [see Clinical Studies ( 14.4 )] . These studies did not reveal any unanticipated adverse reactions. Adverse reactions in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older are expected to be similar to those seen in adults. Clinical Laboratory Findings In controlled clinical trials, clinically relevant changes in standard laboratory parameters were rarely associated with the administration of Tekturna in patients with hypertension not concomitantly treated with an ARB or ACEI. In multiple- dose studies in hypertensive patients, Tekturna had no clinically important effects on total cholesterol, HDL, fasting triglycerides, or fasting glucose. Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine : In patients with hypertension not concomitantly treated with an ARB or ACEI, minor increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or serum creatinine were observed in less than 7% of patients treated with Tekturna alone versus 6% on placebo [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Hemoglobin and Hematocrit : Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.08 g/dL and 0.16 volume percent, respectively, for all aliskiren monotherapy) were observed. The decreases were dose-related and were 0.24 g/dL and 0.79 volume percent for 600 mg daily. This effect is also seen with other agents acting on the renin angiotensin system, such as angiotensin inhibitors and ARBs, and may be mediated by reduction of angiotensin II which stimulates erythropoietin production via the AT1 receptor. These decreases led to slight increases in rates of anemia with aliskiren compared to placebo were observed (0.1% for any aliskiren use, 0.3% for aliskiren 600 mg daily, versus 0% for placebo). No patients discontinued therapy due to anemia. Serum Potassium : In patients with hypertension not concomitantly treated with an ARB or ACEI, increases in serum potassium greater than 5.5 mEq/L were infrequent (0.9% compared to 0.6% with placebo) [see Contraindications ( 4 ) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] . Serum Uric Acid : Aliskiren monotherapy produced small median increases in serum uric acid levels (about 6 micromol/L) while HCTZ produced larger increases (about 30 micromol/L). The combination of aliskiren with HCTZ appears to be additive (about 40 micromol/L increase). The increases in uric acid appear to lead to slight increases in uric acid-related AEs: elevated uric acid (0.4% versus 0.1%), gout (0.2% versus. 0.1%), and renal stones (0.2% versus 0%). Creatine Kinase : Increases in creatine kinase of greater than 300% were recorded in about 1% of aliskiren monotherapy patients versus 0.5% of placebo patients. Five cases of creatine kinase rises, 3 leading to discontinuation and 1 diagnosed as subclinical rhabdomyolysis, and another as myositis, were reported as adverse events with aliskiren use in the clinical trials. No cases were associated with renal dysfunction. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been reported in aliskiren postmarketing experience. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hypersensitivity: anaphylactic reactions and angioedema requiring airway management and hospitalization Urticaria Peripheral edema Hepatic enzyme increase with clinical symptoms of hepatic dysfunction Severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis Pruritus Erythema Hyponatremia Nausea, Vomiting
Cyclosporine: Avoid coadministration of cyclosporine with aliskiren [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . Itraconazole: Avoid coadministration of itraconazole with aliskiren [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) including selective Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (COX-2 inhibitors): In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function, coadministration of NSAIDs, including selective COX-2 inhibitors with agents that affect the RAAS, including aliskiren, may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Monitor renal function periodically in patients receiving aliskiren and NSAID therapy. The antihypertensive effect of aliskiren may be attenuated by NSAIDs. Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS): The concomitant use of aliskiren with other agents acting on the RAAS such as ACEIs or ARBs is associated with an increased risk of hypotension, hyperkalemia, and changes in renal function (including acute renal failure) compared to monotherapy. Most patients receiving the combination of two drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. In general, avoid combined use of aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/min. Monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes in patients taking aliskiren and other agents that affect the RAAS [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 , 5.5 , 5.6 )]. The concomitant use of aliskiren with an ARB or an ACEI in diabetic patients is contraindicated [see Contraindications ( 4 )]. Furosemide: Oral coadministration of aliskiren and furosemide reduced exposure to furosemide. Monitor diuretic effects when furosemide is coadministered with aliskiren. Cyclosporine or Itraconazole: Avoid concomitant use. ( 5.7 , 7 , 12.3 ) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Increased risk of renal impairment and loss of antihypertensive effect. ( 7 )
Use In Specific Populations
Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended. ( 8.2 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Tekturna can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death [see Clinical Considerations ] . Most epidemiologic studies examining fetal abnormalities after exposure to antihypertensive use in the first trimester have not distinguished drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system from other antihypertensive agents. When pregnancy is detected, discontinue Tekturna as soon as possible. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major malformations and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4%, and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Use of drugs that act on the renin-angiotensin system in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy can result in the following: reduced fetal renal function leading to anuria and renal failure, oligohydramnios, fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations, including skull hypoplasia, hypotension, and death. In the unusual case that there is no appropriate alternative to therapy with drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system for a particular patient, apprise the mother of the potential risk to the fetus. In patients taking Tekturna during pregnancy, perform serial ultrasound examinations to assess the intra- amniotic environment. Fetal testing may be appropriate, based on the week of gestation. Patients and physicians should be aware, however, that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe infants with histories of in utero exposure to Tekturna for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occur in neonates with a history of in utero exposure to aliskiren, support blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and substituting for disordered renal function. Data Animal Data In developmental toxicity studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received oral aliskiren hemifumarate during organogenesis at doses up to 20 and 7 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) based on body surface area (mg/m 2 ), respectively, in rats and rabbits. (Actual animal doses were up to 600 mg/kg/day in rats and up to 100 mg/kg/day in rabbits.) No teratogenicity was observed; however, fetal birth weight was decreased in rabbits at doses 3.2 times the MRHD based on body surface area (mg/m 2 ). Aliskiren was present in placentas, amniotic fluid and fetuses of pregnant rabbits. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of aliskiren in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including hypotension, hyperkalemia and renal impairment in nursing infants, advise a nursing woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Tekturna. 8.4 Pediatric Use Tekturna is contraindicated in patients less than 2 years of age [see Contraindications ( 4 )]. Tekturna is indicated for treatment of hypertension in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older weighing 50 kg or more. The safety and effectiveness of aliskiren have been established in pediatric patients 6 years of age and older weighing 20 kg or more, but Tekturna is not approved in patients 6 years of age and older weighing 20 kg to less than 50 kg because of the lack of an appropriate dosage form. Use of Tekturna in pediatric patients 6 years and older is supported by evidence from a pharmacokinetic trial and two randomized, double-blind clinical trials in pediatric patients with hypertension 6 years to 17 years of age weighing 20 kg or more [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ), Clinical Studies ( 14.4 ) ] . The safety and effectiveness of Tekturna have not been established in pediatric patients younger than 6 years of age and patients less than 20 kg. Avoid use in patients 2 years to less than 6 years and patients weighing less than 20 kg due to the limited information about aliskiren metabolism and exposures in this age group. No data are available in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg or in pediatric patients with a glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data Toxicology studies in juvenile animals the approximate human age equivalent of children less than 2 years of age identified 85- to 385-fold increased systemic exposure to aliskiren compared to adult rats. The increased aliskiren exposure in juvenile rats was attributed to immaturity in aliskiren drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes. Increased aliskiren exposures were associated with premature deaths. Although a definitive pathology-based cause of death could not be ascertained, the premature deaths were attributed to the immaturity in aliskiren metabolism. The nonclinical findings suggest a distinct age-dependent relationship between dose and exposure. Neonates with a history of in utero exposure to Tekturna If oliguria or hypotension occurs, direct attention toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusions or dialysis may be required as a means of reversing hypotension and/or substituting for disordered renal function. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of patients receiving aliskiren in clinical studies, 1,275 (19%) were 65 years or older and 231 (3.4%) were 75 years or older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. 8.6 Renal Impairment Safety and effectiveness of Tekturna in patients with severe renal impairment [creatinine clearance (CrCl) less than 30 mL/min] have not been established as these patients were excluded in efficacy trials [see Clinical Studies ( 14 )].