This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Savella safely and effectively. Before taking Savella please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Savella.
WARNING: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS Savella is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), similar to some drugs used for the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of such drugs in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on Savella should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Savella is not approved for use in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Savella is not approved for use in pediatric patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ] WARNING: SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Increased risk of suicidal ideation, thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults taking antidepressants for major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Savella is not approved for use in pediatric patients (5.1)
Indications And Usage
Savella is indicated for the management of fibromyalgia. Savella is not approved for use in pediatric patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)]. Savella® is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) indicated for the management of fibromyalgia (1) Savella is not approved for use in pediatric patients (5.1)
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
Film-coated, immediate release tablets in four strengths: 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg of milnacipran hydrochloride. 12.5 mg tablets are round, pink, "F" on one side, "L" on the reverse; 25 mg tablets are round, white, "FL" on one side, "25" on the reverse; 50 mg tablets are oval, green, "FL" on one side, "50" on the reverse; 100 mg tablets are oval, blue, "FL" on one side, "100" on the reverse [see Description (11) and How Supplied/ Storage and Handling (16)]. Tablets: 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg (3)
Use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors concomitantly or in close temporal proximity (4.1) Use in patients with uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma (4.2) 4.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Concomitant use of Savella in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated. In patients receiving a serotonin reuptake inhibitor in combination with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), there have been reports of serious, sometimes fatal, reactions including hyperthermia, rigidity, myoclonus, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuations of vital signs, and mental status changes that include extreme agitation progressing to delirium and coma. These reactions have also been reported in patients who have recently discontinued serotonin reuptake inhibitors and have been started on an MAOI. Some cases presented with features resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome. The effects of combined use of Savella and MAOIs have not been evaluated in humans. Therefore, it is recommended that Savella should not be used in combination with an MAOI, or within 14 days of discontinuing treatment with an MAOI. Similarly, at least 5 days should be allowed after stopping Savella before starting an MAOI [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 4.2 Uncontrolled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma In clinical trials, Savella was associated with an increased risk of mydriasis. Mydriasis has been reported with other dual reuptake inhibitors of norepinephrine and serotonin; therefore, do not use Savella in patients with uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma.
Warning and Cautions
Suicidality: Monitor for worsening of depressive symptoms and suicide risk (5.1) Serotonin Syndrome: Serotonin syndrome has been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs. Concomitant use of serotonergic drugs is not recommended (5.2) Elevated blood pressure and heart rate: Cases have been reported with Savella. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate prior to initiating treatment with Savella and periodically throughout treatment (5.3, 5.4) Seizures: Cases have been reported with Savella therapy. Prescribe Savella with care in patients with a history of seizure disorder. (5.5) Hepatotoxicity: More patients treated with Savella than with placebo experienced mild elevations of ALT and AST. Rarely, fulminant hepatitis has been reported in patients treated with Savella. Avoid concomitant use of Savella in patients with substantial alcohol use or chronic liver disease (5.6) Discontinuation: Withdrawal symptoms have been reported in patients when discontinuing treatment with Savella. A gradual dose reduction is recommended (5.7) Abnormal Bleeding: Savella may increase the risk of bleeding events. Caution patients about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of Savella and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation. (5.9) Male patients with a history of obstructive uropathies may experience higher rates of genitourinary adverse events (5.11) 5.1 Suicide Risk Savella is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor (SNRI), similar to some drugs used for the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. Patients, both adult and pediatric, with depression or other psychiatric disorders may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking these medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern, however, that antidepressants, including drugs that inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin, may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. In the placebo-controlled clinical trials of adults with fibromyalgia, among the patients who had a history of depression at treatment initiation, the incidence of suicidal ideation was 0.5% in patients treated with placebo, 0% in patients treated with Savella 100 mg/day, and 1.3% in patients treated with Savella 200 mg/day. No suicides occurred in the short-term or longer-term (up to 1 year) fibromyalgia trials. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of drugs used to treat depression (SSRIs and others) showed that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18-24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with these drugs compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in suicidality risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults age 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of 9 drugs used to treat depression in over 4400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of 2 months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk of differences (drug versus placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1000 patients treated) are provided in Table 1. Table 1. Risk Differences (Drug – Placebo) in the number of Cases of Suicidality, per 1000 patients treated Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1000 Patients Treated < 18 14 additional cases 18-24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25-64 1 fewer case ≥ 65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled maintenance trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with drugs inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with drugs inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients who may experience worsening depressive symptoms, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe or abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient's presenting symptoms. If the decision has been made to discontinue treatment due to worsening depressive symptoms or emergent suicidality, medication should be tapered, as rapidly as is feasible, but with recognition that abrupt discontinuation can produce withdrawal symptoms [see Dosage and Administration—Recommended Dosing (2.1), Dosage—Discontinuing Savella ( 2.4), and Warnings and Precautions—Discontinuation of Treatment with Savella ( 5.7 )]. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with drugs inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine and/or serotonin for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to health care providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for Savella should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. 5.2 Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-Like Reactions The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-like reactions have been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs alone, including Savella, but particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (including triptans), with drugs which impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs) or with antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists. Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, hyperthermia), neuromuscular aberrations (e.g., hyperreflexia, incoordination) and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Serotonin syndrome, in its most severe form can resemble neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which includes hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic instability with possible rapid fluctuation of vital signs, and mental status changes. Patients should be monitored for the emergence of serotonin syndrome or NMS-like signs and symptoms. The concomitant use of Savella with MAOIs is contraindicated [see Contraindications (4.1)]. If concomitant treatment of Savella with a 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (triptan) is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases [see Drug Interactions (7)]. The concomitant use of Savella with serotonin precursors (such as tryptophan) is not recommended [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Treatment with Savella and any concomitant serotonergic or antidopaminergic agents, including antipsychotics, should be discontinued immediately if the above events occur and supportive symptomatic treatment should be initiated. 5.3 Effects on Blood Pressure Inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) can lead to cardiovascular effects. SNRIs, including Savella, have been associated with reports of increase in blood pressure. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical pharmacology study in healthy subjects designed to evaluate the effects of milnacipran on various parameters, including blood pressure at supratherapeutic doses, there was evidence of mean increases in supine blood pressure at doses up to 300 mg twice daily (600 mg/day). At the highest 300 mg twice daily dose, the mean increase in systolic blood pressure was up to 8.1 mm Hg for the placebo group and up to 10.0 mm Hg for the Savella treated group over the 12 hour steady state dosing interval. The corresponding mean increase in diastolic blood pressure over this interval was up to 4.6 mm Hg for placebo and up to 11.5 mm Hg for the Savella treated group. In the 3-month placebo-controlled fibromyalgia clinical trials, Savella treatment was associated with mean increases of up to 3.1 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) [see Adverse Reactions (6.3)]. In the placebo-controlled trials, among fibromyalgia patients who were non-hypertensive at baseline, approximately twice as many patients in the Savella treatment arms became hypertensive at the end of the study (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg) compared with the placebo patients: 7.2% of patients in the placebo arm versus 19.5% of patients treated with Savella 100 mg/day and 16.6% of patients treated with Savella 200 mg/day. Among patients who met systolic criteria for pre-hypertension at baseline (SBP 120-139 mmHg), more patients became hypertensive at the end of the study in the Savella treatment arms than placebo: 9% of patients in the placebo arm versus 14% in both the Savella 100 mg/day and the Savella 200 mg/day treatment arms. Among fibromyalgia patients who were hypertensive at baseline, more patients in the Savella treatment arms had a >15 mmHg increase in SBP than placebo at the end of the study: 1% of patients in the placebo arm versus 7% in the Savella 100 mg/day and 2% in the Savella 200 mg/day treatment arms. Similarly, more patients who were hypertensive at baseline and were treated with Savella had DBP increases > 10 mmHg than placebo at the end of study: 3% of patients in the placebo arm versus 8% in the Savella 100 mg/day and 6% in the Savella 200 mg/day treatment arms. Sustained increases in SBP (increase of ≥ 15 mmHg on three consecutive post-baseline visits) occurred in 2% of placebo patients versus 9% of patients receiving Savella 100 mg/day and 6% of patients receiving Savella 200 mg/day. Sustained increases in DBP (increase of ≥ 10 mmHg on 3 consecutive post-baseline visits) occurred in 4% of patients receiving placebo versus 13% of patients receiving Savella 100 mg/day and 10% of patients receiving Savella 200 mg/day. Sustained increases in blood pressure could have adverse consequences. Cases of elevated blood pressure requiring immediate treatment have been reported. Concomitant use of Savella with drugs that increase blood pressure and pulse has not been evaluated and such combinations should be used with caution [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Effects of Savella on blood pressure in patients with significant hypertension or cardiac disease have not been systematically evaluated. Savella should be used with caution in these patients. Blood pressure should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically measured throughout Savella treatment. Pre-existing hypertension and other cardiovascular disease should be treated before starting therapy with Savella. For patients who experience a sustained increase in blood pressure while receiving Savella, either dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. 5.4 Effects on Heart Rate SNRIs have been associated with reports of increase in heart rate. In clinical trials, relative to placebo, Savella treatment was associated with mean increases in pulse rate of approximately 7 to 8 beats per minute [see Adverse Reactions (6.2,6.3)]. Increases in pulse ≥ 20 bpm occurred more frequently in Savella-treated patients when compared to placebo: 0.3% in the placebo arm versus 8% in the Savella 100 mg/day and 8% in the 200 mg/day treatment arms. The effect of Savella on heart rate did not appear to increase with increasing dose. Savella has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a cardiac rhythm disorder. Heart rate should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically measured throughout Savella treatment. Pre-existing tachyarrhythmias and other cardiac disease should be treated before starting therapy with Savella. For patients who experience a sustained increase in heart rate while receiving Savella, either dose reduction or discontinuation should be considered. 5.5 Seizures Savella has not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder. In clinical trials evaluating Savella in patients with fibromyalgia, seizures/convulsions have not been reported. However, seizures have been reported infrequently in patients treated with Savella for disorders other than fibromyalgia. Savella should be prescribed with care in patients with a history of a seizure disorder. 5.6 Hepatotoxicity In the placebo-controlled fibromyalgia trials, increases in the number of patients treated with Savella with mild elevations of ALT or AST (1-3 times the upper limit of normal, ULN) were observed. Increases in ALT were more frequently observed in the patients treated with Savella 100 mg/day (6%) and Savella 200 mg/day (7%), compared to the patients treated with placebo (3%). One patient receiving Savella 100 mg/day (0.2%) had an increase in ALT greater than 5 times the upper limit of normal but did not exceed 10 times the upper limit of normal. Increases in AST were more frequently observed in the patients treated with Savella 100 mg/day (3%) and Savella 200 mg/day (5%) compared to the patients treated with placebo (2%). The increases of bilirubin observed in the fibromyalgia clinical trials were not clinically significant. No case met the criteria of elevated ALT > 3x ULN and associated with an increase in bilirubin ≥ 2x ULN. There have been cases of increased liver enzymes and reports of severe liver injury, including fulminant hepatitis with milnacipran from foreign postmarketing experience. In the cases of severe liver injury there were significant underlying clinical conditions and/or the use of multiple concomitant medications. Because of underreporting, it is impossible to provide an accurate estimate of the true incidence of these reactions. Savella should be discontinued in patients who develop jaundice or other evidence of liver dysfunction. Treatment with Savella should not be resumed unless another cause can be established. Savella should ordinarily not be prescribed to patients with substantial alcohol use or evidence of chronic liver disease. 5.7 Discontinuation of Treatment with Savella Withdrawal symptoms have been observed in clinical trials following discontinuation of milnacipran, as with other SNRIs and SSRIs. During marketing of milnacipran, and other SNRIs and SSRIs, there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events indicative of withdrawal and physical dependence occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when discontinuation is abrupt. The adverse events include the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. Although these events are generally self-limiting, some have been reported to be severe. Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with Savella. Savella should be tapered and not abruptly discontinued after extended use. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. 5.8 Hyponatremia Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including Savella. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SNRIs, SSRIs, or Savella. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume-depleted may be at greater risk [see Geriatric Use (8.5)]. Discontinuation of Savella should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. Signs and symptoms associated with more severe and/or acute cases have included hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death. 5.9 Abnormal Bleeding SSRIs and SNRIs, including Savella, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages. Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of Savella and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation. 5.10 Activation of Mania No activation of mania or hypomania was reported in the clinical trials evaluating effects of Savella in patients with fibromyalgia. However those clinical trials excluded patients with current major depressive episode. Activation of mania and hypomania have been reported in patients with mood disorders who were treated with other similar drugs for major depressive disorder. As with these other agents, Savella should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania. 5.11 Patients with a History of Dysuria Because of their noradrenergic effect, SNRIs including Savella, can affect urethral resistance and micturition. In the controlled fibromyalgia trials, dysuria occurred more frequently in patients treated with Savella (1%) than in placebo-treated patients (0.5%). Caution is advised in use of Savella in patients with a history of dysuria, notably in male patients with prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis, and other lower urinary tract obstructive disorders. Male patients are more prone to genitourinary adverse effects, such as dysuria or urinary retention, and may experience testicular pain or ejaculation disorders. 5.12 Controlled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma Mydriasis has been reported in association with SNRIs and Savella; therefore, Savella should be used cautiously in patients with controlled narrow-angle glaucoma. Do not use Savella in patients with Uncontrolled Narrow-Angle Glaucoma [see Contraindications (4.2)]. 5.13 Concomitant Use with Alcohol In clinical trials, more patients treated with Savella developed elevated transaminases than did placebo treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. Because it is possible that milnacipran may aggravate pre-existing liver disease, Savella should not be prescribed to patients with substantial alcohol use or evidence of chronic liver disease. 5.14 Allergy to FD&C Yellow No. 5 This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.
The most frequently occurring adverse reactions (≥ 5% and greater than placebo) were nausea, headache, constipation, dizziness, insomnia, hot flush, hyperhidrosis, vomiting, palpations, heart rate increased, dry mouth, and hypertension (6.3). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc., at (800) 678-1605 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Data Sources Savella was evaluated in three double-blind placebo-controlled trials involving 2209 fibromyalgia patients (1557 patients treated with Savella and 652 patients treated with placebo) for a treatment period up to 29 weeks. The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. 6.2 Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation In placebo-controlled trials in patients with fibromyalgia, 23% of patients treated with Savella 100 mg/day, 26% of patients treated with Savella 200 mg/day discontinued prematurely due to adverse reactions, compared to 12% of patients treated with placebo. The adverse reactions that led to withdrawal in ≥ 1% of patients in the Savella treatment group and with an incidence rate greater than that in the placebo treatment group were nausea (milnacipran 6%, placebo 1%), palpitations (milnacipran 3%, placebo 1%), headache (milnacipran 2%, placebo 0%), constipation (milnacipran 1%, placebo 0%), heart rate increased (milnacipran 1%, placebo 0%), and hyperhidrosis (milnacipran 1%, placebo 0%), vomiting (milnacipran 1%, placebo 0%), and dizziness (milnacipran 1% and placebo 0.5%). Discontinuation due to adverse reactions was generally more common among patients treated with Savella 200 mg/day compared to Savella 100 mg/day. 6.3 Most Common Adverse Reactions In the placebo-controlled fibromyalgia patient trials the most frequently occurring adverse reaction in clinical trials was nausea. The most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 5% and twice placebo) in patients treated with Savella were constipation, hot flush, hyperhidrosis, vomiting, palpitations, heart rate increased, dry mouth, and hypertension. Table 2 lists all adverse reactions that occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with Savella at either 100 or 200 mg/day and at an incidence greater than that of placebo. Table 2. Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reaction Incidence in Placebo Controlled Trials in Fibromyalgia Patients (Events Occurring in at Least 2% of All Savella-Treated Patients and Occurring More Frequently in Either Savella Treatment Group Than in the Placebo Treatment Group) System Organ Class– Preferred Term Savella 100 mg/day (n = 623) % Savella 200 mg/day (n = 934) % All Savella (n = 1557) % Placebo (n = 652) % Cardiac Disorders Palpitations 8 7 7 2 Tachycardia 3 2 2 1 Eye Disorders Vision blurred 1 2 2 1 Gastrointestinal Disorders Nausea 35 39 37 20 Constipation 16 15 16 4 Vomiting 6 7 7 2 Dry mouth 5 5 5 2 Abdominal pain 3 3 3 2 General Disorders Chest pain 3 2 2 2 Chills 1 2 2 0 Chest discomfort 2 1 1 1 Infections Upper respiratory tract infection 7 6 6 6 Investigations Heart rate increased 5 6 6 1 Blood pressure increased 3 3 3 1 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Decreased appetite 1 2 2 0 Nervous System Disorders Headache 19 17 18 14 Dizziness 11 10 10 6 Migraine 6 4 5 3 Paresthesia 2 3 2 2 Tremor 2 2 2 1 Hypoesthesia 1 2 1 1 Tension headache 2 1 1 1 Psychiatric Disorders Insomnia 12 12 12 10 Anxiety 5 3 4 4 Respiratory Disorders Dyspnea 2 2 2 1 Skin Disorders Hyperhidrosis 8 9 9 2 Rash 3 4 3 2 Pruritus 3 2 2 2 Vascular Disorders Hot flush 11 12 12 2 Hypertension 7 4 5 2 Flushing 2 3 3 1 6.4 Weight Changes In placebo-controlled fibromyalgia clinical trials, patients treated with Savella for up to 3 months experienced a mean weight loss of approximately 0.8 kg in both the Savella 100 mg/day and the Savella 200 mg/day treatment groups, compared with a mean weight loss of approximately 0.2 kg in placebo-treated patients. 6.5 Genitourinary Adverse Reactions in Males In the placebo-controlled fibromyalgia studies, the following treatment-emergent adverse reactions related to the genitourinary system were observed in at least 2% of male patients treated with Savella, and occurred at a rate greater than in placebo-treated male patients: dysuria, ejaculation disorder, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation failure, libido decreased, prostatitis, scrotal pain, testicular pain, testicular swelling, urinary hesitation, urinary retention, urethral pain, and urine flow decreased. 6.6 Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Trials of Savella in Fibromyalgia Following is a list of frequent (those occurring on one or more occasions in at least 1/100 patients) treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported from 1824 fibromyalgia patients treated with Savella for periods up to 68 weeks. The listing does not include those events already listed in Table 1, those events for which a drug cause was remote, those events which were so general as to be uninformative, and those events reported only once which did not have a substantial probability of being acutely life threatening. Adverse reactions are categorized by body system and listed in order of decreasing frequency. Adverse reactions of major clinical importance are described in the Warnings and Precautions section (5). Gastrointestinal Disorders - diarrhea, dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, flatulence, abdominal distension General Disorders - fatigue, peripheral edema, irritability, pyrexia Infections - urinary tract infection, cystitis Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications - contusion, fall Investigations - weight decreased or increased Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders - hypercholesterolemia Nervous System Disorders - somnolence, dysgeusia Psychiatric Disorders - depression, stress Skin Disorders - night sweats 6.7 Postmarketing Spontaneous Reports The following additional adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous reports of Savella received worldwide. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion because of a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to Savella. However, because these adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events include: Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders - leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia Cardiac Disorders - supraventricular tachycardia Eye Disorders - accommodation disorder Endocrine Disorders - hyperprolactinemia Hepatobiliary Disorders - hepatitis Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders - anorexia, hyponatremia Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders - rhabdomyolysis Nervous System Disorders - convulsions (including grand mal), loss of consciousness, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Parkinsonism, serotonin syndrome Psychiatric Disorders - delirium, hallucination Renal and Urinary Disorders - acute renal failure Reproductive System and Breast Disorders - galactorrhea Skin Disorders - erythema multiforme, Stevens Johnson syndrome Vascular Disorders - hypertensive crisis
Milnacipran undergoes minimal CYP450 related metabolism, with the majority of the dose excreted unchanged in urine (55%), and has a low binding to plasma proteins (13%). In vitro and in vivo studies showed that Savella is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions [see Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations (12.4)]. Savella is unlikely to be involved in clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions (7) Pharmacodynamic interactions of Savella with other drugs can occur (7) 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [See Contraindications (4.1)] 7.2 Serotonergic Drugs Due to the mechanism of action of SNRIs and SSRIs, including Savella, and the potential for serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) – like reactions, caution is advised when Savella is co-administered with other drugs that may affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems. This includes drugs such as triptans, lithium, tryptophan, antipsychotics and dopamine antagonists. Co-administration of Savella with other inhibitors of serotonin re-uptake may result in hypertension and coronary artery vasoconstriction, through additive serotonergic effects. Concomitant use of Savella with other SSRIs, SNRIs, or tryptophan is not recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. 7.3 Triptans There have been rare postmarketing reports of serotonin syndrome with use of an SSRI and a triptan. If concomitant treatment of Savella with a triptan is clinically warranted, careful observation of the patient is advised, , particularly during treatment initiation and dose increases. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] 7.4 Catecholamines Savella inhibits the reuptake of norepinephrine. Therefore concomitant use of Savella with epinephrine and norepinephrine may be associated with paroxysmal hypertension and possible arrhythmia [see Warnings and Precautions – Effects on Blood Pressure (5.3) and Effects on Heart Rate (5.4)] 7.5 CNS-active drugs Given the primary CNS effects of Savella, caution should be used when it is taken in combination with other centrally acting drugs, including those with a similar mechanism of action. Clomipramine: In a drug-drug interaction study, an increase in euphoria and postural hypotension was observed in patients who switched from clomipramine to Savella. 7.6 Clinically Important Interactions with Select Cardiovascular Agents Digoxin: Use of Savella concomitantly with digoxin may be associated with potentiation of adverse hemodynamic effects. Postural hypotension and tachycardia have been reported in combination therapy with intravenously administered digoxin (1 mg). Co-administration of Savella and intravenous digoxin should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.4)] Clonidine: Because Savella inhibits norepinephrine reuptake, co-administration with clonidine may inhibit clonidine's anti-hypertensive effect.”
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy and nursing mothers: Use only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus or child. (8.1, 8.3) To enroll in the Savella Pregnancy Registry call 1-877-643-3010 (toll free) or download data forms from the registry website: www.savellapregnancyregistry.com (8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C Milnacipran increased the incidence of dead fetuses in utero in rats at doses of 5 mg/kg/day (0.25 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). Administration of milnacipran to mice and rabbits during the period of organogenesis did not result in embryotoxicity or teratogenicity at doses up to 125 mg/kg/day in mice (3 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 200 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis) and up to 60 mg/kg/day in rabbits (6 times the MRHD of 200 mg/day on a mg m2 basis). In rabbits, the incidence of the skeletal variation, extra single rib, was increased following administration of milnacipran at 15 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Savella should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. To provide information regarding the exposure to Savella during pregnancy, Physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking Savella enroll in the Savella Pregnancy Registry. Enrollment is voluntary and may be initiated by pregnant patients or their healthcare providers by contacting the registry at 1-877-643-3010 or by email at [email protected] Data forms may also be downloaded from the registry website at www.savellapregnancyregistry.com. Nonteratogenic Effects Neonates exposed to dual reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors late in the third trimester have developed complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of these classes of drugs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In rats, a decrease in pup body weight and viability on postpartum day 4 were observed when milnacipran, at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), was administered orally to rats during late gestation. The no-effect dose for maternal and offspring toxicity was 2.5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.1 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis). 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of milnacipran on labor and delivery is unknown. The use of Savella during labor and delivery is not recommended. 8.3 Nursing Mothers There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in nursing mothers. It is not known if milnacipran is excreted in human milk. Studies in animals have shown that milnacipran or its metabolites are excreted in breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from milnacipran, a decision should be made whether to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Because the safety of Savella in infants is not known, nursing while on Savella is not recommended. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of Savella in a fibromyalgia pediatric population below the age of 17 have not been established [see Box Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. The use of Savella is not recommended in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use In controlled clinical studies of Savella, 402 patients were 60 years or older, and no overall differences in safety and efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients. In view of the predominant excretion of unchanged milnacipran via kidneys and the expected decrease in renal function with age renal function should be considered prior to use of Savella in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)]. SNRIs, SSRIs, and Savella, have been associated with cases of clinically significant hyponatremia in elderly patients, who may be at greater risk for this adverse event [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].