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WARNING: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE REACTIONS PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a preexisting history of psychosis. Severe psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairment may occur during treatment with PRIALT. Monitor all patients frequently for evidence of cognitive impairment, hallucinations, or changes in mood or consciousness. Discontinue PRIALT therapy in the event of serious neurological or psychiatric signs or symptoms. WARNING: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ADVERSE REACTIONS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning Severe psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairment may occur during treatment with PRIALT. Do not treat patients with a pre-existing history of psychosis with PRIALT
Indications And Usage
PRIALT (ziconotide) solution, intrathecal infusion is indicated for the management of severe chronic pain in adult patients for whom intrathecal therapy is warranted, and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatment, such as systemic analgesics, adjunctive therapies, or intrathecal morphine. PRIALT (ziconotide) solution, intrathecal infusion is an N-type calcium channel antagonist indicated for the management of severe chronic pain in patients for whom intrathecal therapy is warranted, and who are intolerant of or refractory to other treatment, such as systemic analgesics, adjunctive therapies, or intrathecal morphine. (1)
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Dosage And Administration
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
PRIALT (ziconotide) solution, intrathecal infusion is supplied as a 25 mcg/mL concentration in single-use 20 mL glass vials and as a 100 mcg/mL concentration in single-use glass vials containing 1 mL or 5 mL of solution. Intrathecal solution (3): •25 mcg/mL •100 mcg/mL
•PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to ziconotide or any of its formulation components. •PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with any other concomitant treatment or medical condition that would render intrathecal administration hazardous. Contraindications to the use of intrathecal analgesia include the presence of infection at the microinfusion injection site, uncontrolled bleeding diathesis, and spinal canal obstruction that impairs circulation of CSF. •PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a pre-existing history of psychosis. •Patients with a known hypersensitivity to ziconotide or any of its formulation components and in patients with any other concomitant treatment or medical condition that would render intrathecal administration hazardous. (4) •Patients with a pre-existing history of psychosis with ziconotide. (4) •Contraindications to the use of intrathecal analgesia include conditions such as the presence of infection at the microinfusion injection site, uncontrolled bleeding diathesis, and spinal canal obstruction that impairs circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (4)
Warning and Cautions
•Cognitive and neuropsychiatric adverse reactions – Cognitive impairment and severe neuropsychiatric symptoms may occur with PRIALT use (5.1) •Meningitis and other infections - Patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers must be aware of the signs and symptoms of meningitis, including but not limited to fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status (e.g., lethargy, confusion, disorientation), nausea or vomiting, and occasionally seizures. (5.2) •Reduced level of consciousness - Patients may become unresponsive or stuporous while receiving PRIALT (5.3) •Elevation of serum creatine kinase – Patients taking PRIALT may experience elevations in creatine kinase. Monitor serum CK in patients undergoing treatment with PRIALT periodically (5.4) •Withdrawal from opiates: Patients must not be abruptly withdrawn from opiates and must be gradually tapered over a few weeks and replaced with a pharmacologically equivalent dose of oral opiates (5.5) 5.1 Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Reactions Severe psychiatric symptoms and neurological impairment may occur during treatment with PRIALT. PRIALT is contraindicated in patients with a pre-existing history of psychosis. Monitor all patients frequently for evidence of cognitive impairment, hallucinations, or changes in mood or consciousness. PRIALT therapy can be interrupted or discontinued abruptly without evidence of withdrawal effects in the event of serious neurological or psychiatric signs or symptoms. Events of acute psychiatric disturbances such as hallucinations (12%), paranoid reactions (3%), hostility (2%), delirium (2%), psychosis (1%), and manic reactions (0.4%) have been reported in patients treated with PRIALT. Patients with pretreatment psychiatric disorders may be at an increased risk. PRIALT may cause or worsen depression with the risk of suicide in susceptible patients. In placebo-controlled trials, there was a higher incidence of suicide, suicide attempts, and suicide ideations in PRIALT-treated patients than in the placebo group (0.27/patient year for PRIALT patients and 0.10/patient year for placebo patients). Management of psychiatric complications may need to include discontinuation of PRIALT, treatment with psychotherapeutic agents and/or short-term hospitalization. Before drug is reinitiated, careful evaluation must be performed on an individual basis. Use of PRIALT has been associated with cognitive impairment and decreased alertness/unresponsiveness. The following cognitive adverse reaction rates were reported: confusion (33%), memory impairment (22%), speech disorder (14%), aphasia (12%), thinking abnormal (8%), and amnesia (1%). Cognitive impairment may appear gradually after several weeks of treatment. Reduce the dose of PRIALT or discontinue the use of PRIALT if signs or symptoms of cognitive impairment develop, but other contributing causes must also be considered. The cognitive effects of PRIALT are generally reversible within 2 weeks after drug discontinuation. The median time to reversal of the individual cognitive effects ranged from 3 to 15 days. The elderly (≥ 65 years of age) are at higher risk for confusion. [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)] There may be additive effects on cognitive impairment and decreased alertness when PRIALT is used in conjunction with other CNS-depressant drugs that may necessitate dosage adjustments. 5.2 Meningitis and Other Infections Meningitis can occur due to inadvertent contamination of the microinfusion device and other means such as CSF seeding due to hematogenous or direct spread from an infected pump pocket or catheter tract. While meningitis is rare with an internal microinfusion device and surgically-implanted catheter, the incidence increases substantially with external devices. In PRIALT clinical trials, meningitis occurred in 3% (40) of patients in the PRIALT group using either internal or external microinfusion devices and 1% (1 case) of patients in the placebo group. The risk of meningitis was particularly high in patients with external microinfusion devices and catheters, occurring in 38 out of 41 patients (93%), 37 of whom received PRIALT and one who received placebo. Patients, caregivers, and healthcare providers must be particularly vigilant for the signs and symptoms of meningitis, including but not limited to fever, headache, stiff neck, altered mental status (e.g., lethargy, confusion, disorientation), nausea or vomiting, and occasionally seizures. Serious infection or meningitis can occur within 24 hours of a breach in sterility such as a disconnected catheter, the most common cause of meningitis with external microinfusion devices. The patient and health care provider must be familiar with the handling of the external microinfusion device and care of the catheter skin exit site. Strict aseptic procedures must be used during the preparation of the PRIALT solution and refilling of the microinfusion device to decrease the risk of introducing contaminants or other environmental pathogens into the reservoir. In suspected cases (especially in immuno-compromised patients) or in confirmed cases of meningitis, CSF cultures must be obtained and appropriate antibiotic therapy must be promptly instituted. Treatment of meningitis usually requires removal of the microinfusion system, catheter, and any other foreign body materials within the intrathecal space and, therefore, discontinuation of PRIALT therapy. 5.3 Reduced Level of Consciousness Patients have become unresponsive or stuporous while receiving PRIALT. The incidence of unresponsiveness or stupor in clinical trials was 2% in PRIALT-treated patients. During these episodes, patients sometimes appear to be conscious and breathing is not depressed. If reduced levels of consciousness occur, discontinue PRIALT until the event resolves, and other etiologies (e.g., meningitis) must be considered. There is no known pharmacologic antagonist for this effect. Patients taking concomitant antiepileptics, neuroleptics, sedatives, or diuretics may be at higher risk of depressed levels of consciousness. If altered consciousness occurs, discontinue other CNS-depressant drugs as clinically appropriate. 5.4 Elevation of Serum Creatine Kinase In clinical studies, 40% of PRIALT-treated patients had serum creatine kinase (CK) levels above the upper limit of normal (ULN), and 11% had CK levels that were greater than three times the ULN. In cases where CK was fractionated, only the muscle isoenzyme (MM) was elevated. The time to occurrence was sporadic, but the greatest incidence of CK elevation was during the first two months of treatment. One case of symptomatic myopathy with EMG findings, and two cases of acute renal failure associated with rhabdomyolysis and extreme CK elevations (17,000–27,000 IU/L) have been reported in PRIALT-treated patients. Therefore, monitor serum CK in patients undergoing treatment with PRIALT periodically (e.g., every other week for the first month and monthly as appropriate thereafter). Evaluate patients clinically and obtain CK measurements in the setting of new neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., myalgias, myasthenia, muscle cramps, asthenia) or a reduction in physical activity. If these symptoms continue and CK levels remain elevated or continue to rise, reduce the dose or discontinue the use of PRIALT. 5.5 Withdrawal From Opiates PRIALT is not an opiate and cannot prevent or relieve the symptoms associated with the withdrawal of opiates. To avoid withdrawal syndrome when opiate withdrawal is necessary, do not abruptly reduce or withdraw opioid medications. For patients being withdrawn from intrathecal opiates or intrathecal opiate infusion, gradually taper over a few weeks and replace with a pharmacologically equivalent dose of oral opiates. 5.6 Driving and Operating Machinery Use of PRIALT has been associated with cognitive impairment and decreased alertness/unresponsiveness. Therefore, caution patients against engaging in hazardous activities that require complete mental alertness or motor coordination such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥ 25%) in clinical trials were dizziness, nausea, confusional state, nystagmus (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at (800) 890-3098 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates in clinical practice. A total of 1254 adult patients received PRIALT as a continuous infusion in acute and severe chronic pain trials with an exposure of 662 patient-years. The mean duration of treatment was 193 days with 173 patients (14%) treated for at least 1 year. The average final dose was 17.6 mcg/day (0.73 mcg/hr). The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥ 25%) in clinical trials were dizziness, nausea, confusional state and nystagmus. Slower titration of PRIALT may result in fewer serious adverse reactions and discontinuation of PRIALT for adverse reactions [see Clinical Studies (14) and Dosage and Administration (2)]. Adverse reactions during the slow titration placebo-controlled trial that occurred in 5% or greater of patients and more commonly with PRIALT than with placebo are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Incidence of Adverse Reactions in Slow Titration Placebo-Controlled Trial by Percent (Events That Occurred in ≥ 5% of Patients and More Commonly with PRIALT than with Placebo) MedDRA System Organ Class MedDRA Preferred term PRIALT N=112 Placebo N=108 Percentage of Patients Any AE 93 82 Ear and Labyrinth Disorders Vertigo 7 0 Eye Disorders Vision Blurred 12 3 Gastrointestinal Disorders Diarrhea 18 15 Nausea 40 29 Vomiting 16 14 General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Asthenia 18 6 Gait Abnormal 14 2 Pyrexia 5 3 Rigors 7 5 Infections and Infestations Sinusitis 5 2 Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Anorexia 6 2 Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders Muscle Spasms 6 4 Pain in Limb 5 2 Nervous System Disorders Amnesia 8 0 Ataxia 14 1 Dizziness 46 13 Dysarthria 7 0 Dysgeusia 5 5 Headache 13 11 Memory Impairment 7 1 Nystagmus 8 0 Somnolence 17 10 Tremor 7 3 Psychiatric Disorders Anxiety 8 3 Confusional State 15 5 Insomnia 6 9 Renal and Urinary Disorders Urinary Retention 9 0 Skin and Subcutaneous Disorders Pruritis 7 7 Sweating Increased 5 6 Other Adverse Reactions Observed During Clinical Studies of PRIALT The following adverse reactions assessed as related to PRIALT have been reported in 2% or greater of patients participating in the clinical studies: EYE DISORDERS: diplopia, visual disturbance GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS: abdominal pain, constipation, dry mouth, nausea aggravated GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS: fall, fatigue, lethargy, edema peripheral INVESTIGATIONS: blood creatine phosphokinase increased METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS: appetite decreased MUSCULOSKELETAL AND CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISORDERS: muscle cramp, muscle weakness, myalgia, pain in limb NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS: aphasia, areflexia, balance impaired, burning sensation, coordination abnormal, disturbance in attention, dizziness postural, dysarthria, dysgeusia, hypoaesthesia, mental impairment, paraesthesia, sedation, speech disorder PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: agitation, anxiety, cognitive disorder, confusional state, depression, depression aggravated, disorientation, hallucination, hallucination auditory, hallucination visual, insomnia, irritability, mood disorder, nervousness, paranoia RENAL AND URINARY DISORDERS: dysuria, urinary hesitation VASCULAR DISORDERS: hypotension, orthostatic hypotension. The following medically important adverse reactions occurred in less than 2% of patients were assessed by the clinical investigators as related to PRIALT: acute renal failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, sepsis, meningitis, psychotic disorder, suicidal ideation, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, electrocardiogram abnormal, stupor, loss of consciousness, clonic convulsion and grand mal convulsion. Fatal aspiration pneumonia and suicide attempt were reported in less than 1% of patients. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse events have been reported during post-approval use of PRIALT. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema, serious skin reactions including bullous dermatitis, skin ulcers, skin exfoliation, and burning skin sensation.
Formal PK drug-drug interaction studies have not been performed with PRIALT. As ziconotide is a peptide, it is expected to be completely degraded by endopeptidases and exopeptidases (Phase I hydrolytic enzymes) widely located throughout the body, and not by other Phase I biotransformation processes (including the cytochrome P450 system) or by Phase II conjugation reactions. Thus, intrathecal administration, low plasma ziconotide concentrations, and metabolism by ubiquitous peptidases make metabolic interactions of other drugs with ziconotide unlikely. Further, as ziconotide is not highly bound in plasma (approximately 50%) and has low plasma exposure following intrathecal administration, clinically relevant plasma protein displacement reactions involving ziconotide and co-administered medications are unlikely. Over 90% of patients treated with intrathecal PRIALT used systemic opiates and in the slow titration study, 98% of patients received opioids. The combination of PRIALT with intrathecal opiates has not been studied in placebo-controlled clinical trials and is not recommended. •Combination of PRIALT with intrathecal opiates is not recommended. (7) •Patients taking concomitant antiepileptics, neuroleptics, sedatives, or diuretics may be at higher risk of depressed levels of consciousness (5.3) •The use of PRIALT may be associated with an increased incidence of CNS adverse reactions such as dizziness and confusion (7.1) 7.1 Interaction with CNS Depressants Almost all patients in the PRIALT clinical trials received concomitant non-intrathecal medication. Most patients received several concomitant drugs, including antidepressants (66%), anxiolytics (52%), antiepileptics (47%), neuroleptics (46%), and sedatives (34%). The use of drugs with CNS-depressant activities may be associated with an increased incidence of CNS adverse reactions such as dizziness and confusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5)].
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy: No adequate and well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Use PRIALT during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the risk to the fetus. (8.1) Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether PRIALT is excreted in human breast milk. (8.3) Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. (8.4) Geriatric Use: There is a higher incidence of confusion in elderly patients. The dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, starting at the low end of the dosing range. (8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C: Ziconotide was embryolethal in rats when given as a continuous intravenous infusion during the major period of organogenesis as evidenced by significant increases in post-implantation loss because of an absence or a reduced number of live fetuses. Estimated exposure for embryolethality in the rat was approximately 700-fold above the expected exposure resulting from the maximum recommended human daily intrathecal dose of 0.8 mcg/hr (19.2 mcg/day). Ziconotide was not teratogenic in female rats when given as a continuous intravenous infusion at doses up to 30 mg/kg/day or in female rabbits up to 5 mg/kg/day during the major period of organ development. Estimated exposures in the female rat and rabbit were approximately 26,000-fold and 940-fold higher than the expected exposure resulting from the maximum recommended human daily dose of 0.8 mcg/hr (19.2 mcg/day) based on plasma exposure. Maternal toxicity in the rat and rabbit, as evidenced by decreased body weight gain and food consumption, was present at all dose levels. Maternal toxicity in the rat led to reduced fetal weights and transient, delayed ossification of the pubic bones at doses ≥ 15 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 8900-fold higher than the expected exposure resulting from the maximum recommended human daily intrathecal dose of 0.8 mcg/hr (19.2 mcg/day) based on plasma exposure. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for embryo-fetal development in rats was 0.5 mg/kg/day and in rabbits was 5 mg/kg/day. Estimated NOAEL exposures in the rat and rabbit were approximately 400-fold and 940-fold higher than the expected exposure resulting from the maximum recommended human daily intrathecal dose of 0.8 mcg/hr (19.2 mcg/day) based on plasma exposure. In a pre- and post-natal study in rats, ziconotide given as a continuous intravenous infusion did not affect pup development or reproductive performance up to a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, which is approximately 3800-fold higher than the expected exposure resulting from the maximum recommended human daily intrathecal dose of 0.8 mcg/hr (19.2 mcg/day) based on plasma exposure. Maternal toxicity, as evidenced by clinical observations, and decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were observed at all doses. No adequate and well-controlled studies have been conducted in pregnant women. Because animal studies are not always predictive of human response, PRIALT should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies risk to the fetus. 8.2 Labor and Delivery The effect of PRIALT on labor and delivery in humans is not known. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is not known whether PRIALT is excreted in human breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from PRIALT, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of PRIALT, 22% were 65 and over, while 7% were 75 and over. In all trials, there was a higher incidence of confusion in older patients (42% for ≥ 65 year old versus 29% for < 65 year old subgroups). Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, the dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.