This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Prempro safely and effectively. Before taking Prempro please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Prempro.

Warning

WARNING: CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS, BREAST CANCER, ENDOMETRIAL CANCER and PROBABLE DEMENTIA Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable Dementia Estrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.6, 14.7)]. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogen (CE) [0.625 mg] combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) [2.5 mg], relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of the WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) combined with MPA (2.5 mg), relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. Breast Cancer The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy also demonstrated an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2), and Clinical Studies (14.6)]. In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and MPA and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins. Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. Estrogen-Alone Therapy Endometrial Cancer There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Cardiovascular Disorders and Probable Dementia Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.6, 14.7)]. The WHI estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and DVT in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 7.1 years of treatment with daily oral CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 5.2 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo. It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and other dosage forms of estrogens. Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. WARNING: CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS, BREAST CANCER, ENDOMETRIAL CANCER and PROBABLE DEMENTIA See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Estrogen Plus Progestin Therapy Estrogen plus progestin therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia (5.1, 5.3) The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and myocardial infarction (MI) (5.1) The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of invasive breast cancer (5.2) The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (5.3) Estrogen-Alone Therapy There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens (5.2) Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia (5.1, 5.3) The WHI estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and DVT (5.1) The WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age and older (5.3)

Indications And Usage

PREMPRO/PREMPHASE is an estrogen plus progestin indicated in a woman with a uterus for: Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vasomotor Symptoms due to Menopause (1.1) Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy due to Menopause (1.2) Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (1.3) 1.1 Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vasomotor Symptoms due to Menopause 1.2 Treatment of Moderate to Severe Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy due to Menopause 1.3 Prevention of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

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NO - The Pharmacy Savings Card alone does not cost you anything

Dosage Forms And Strengths

PREMPRO (conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets) Tablet Strength Tablet Shape/Color Imprint 0.3 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA oval / cream PREMPRO 0.3/1.5 0.45 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA oval / gold PREMPRO 0.45/1.5 0.625 mg CE plus 2.5 mg MPA oval / peach PREMPRO 0.625/2.5 0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA oval / light blue PREMPRO 0.625/5 PREMPHASE (conjugated estrogens/medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets) Tablet Strength Tablet Shape/Color Imprint 0.625 mg CE oval / maroon (14 tablets) PREMARIN 0.625 0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA oval / light-blue (14 tablets) PREMPRO 0.625/5 PREMPRO Tablets: 0.3 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA, 0.45 mg CE plus 1.5 mg MPA, 0.625 mg CE plus 2.5 mg MPA, 0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA. PREMPHASE Tablets: 0.625 mg CE, 0.625 mg CE plus 5 mg MPA.

Contraindications

PREMPRO or PREMPHASE therapy should not be used in women with any of the following conditions: Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia Active DVT, PE, or a history of these conditions Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions Known anaphylactic reaction or angioedema to PREMPRO/PREMPHASE Known liver dysfunction or disease Known protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders Known or suspected pregnancy Undiagnosed abnormal genital bleeding (4) Known, suspected, or history of breast cancer (4, 5.2) Known or suspected estrogen-dependent neoplasia (4, 5.2) Active DVT, PE, or a history of these conditions (4, 5.1) Active arterial thromboembolic disease (for example, stroke and MI), or a history of these conditions (4, 5.1) Known anaphylactic reaction or angioedema to PREMPRO/PREMPHASE (5.15, 5.16) Known liver dysfunction or disease (4, 5.10) Known protein C, protein S, or antithrombin deficiency, or other known thrombophilic disorders (4) Known or suspected pregnancy (4, 8.1)

Warning and Cautions

Estrogens increase the risk of gallbladder disease (5.4) Discontinue estrogen if severe hypercalcemia, loss of vision, severe hypertriglyceridemia or cholestatic jaundice occurs (5.5, 5.6, 5.9, 5.10) Monitor thyroid function in women on thyroid replacement therapy (5.11, 5.19) 5.1 Cardiovascular Disorders An increased risk of PE, DVT, stroke and MI has been reported with estrogen plus progestin therapy. An increased risk of stroke and DVT has been reported with estrogen-alone therapy. Should any of these occur or be suspected, estrogen with or without progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. Risk factors for arterial vascular disease (for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity) and/or venous thromboembolism (VTE) (for example, personal history or family history of VTE, obesity, and systemic lupus erythematosus) should be managed appropriately. Stroke In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (33 versus 25 per 10,000 women-years) [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The increase in risk was demonstrated after the first year and persisted.1 Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, a statistically significant increased risk of stroke was reported in women 50 to 79 years of age receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to women in the same age group receiving placebo (45 versus 33 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in risk was demonstrated in year 1 and persisted [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a stroke occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately. Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest no increased risk of stroke for those women receiving CE (0.625 mg)-alone versus those receiving placebo (18 versus 21 per 10,000 women-years).1 Coronary Heart Disease In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, there was a statistically non-significant increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events (defined as nonfatal MI, silent MI, or CHD death) reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (41 versus 34 per 10,000 women-years).1 An increase in relative risk was demonstrated in year 1, and a trend toward decreasing relative risk was reported in years 2 through 5 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, no overall effect on CHD events was reported in women receiving estrogen-alone compared to placebo2 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Subgroup analyses of women 50 to 59 years of age suggest a statistically non-significant reduction in CHD events (CE [0.625 mg]-alone compared to placebo) in women with less than 10 years since menopause (8 versus 16 per 10,000 women-years).1 In postmenopausal women with documented heart disease (n = 2,763), average 66.7 years of age, in a controlled clinical trial of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study [HERS]), treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) demonstrated no cardiovascular benefit. During an average follow-up of 4.1 years, treatment with CE plus MPA did not reduce the overall rate of CHD events in postmenopausal women with established coronary heart disease. There were more CHD events in the CE plus MPA-treated group than in the placebo group in year 1, but not during subsequent years. Two thousand, three hundred and twenty-one (2,321) women from the original HERS trial agreed to participate in an open label extension of HERS, HERS II. Average follow-up in HERS II was an additional 2.7 years, for a total of 6.8 years overall. Rates of CHD events were comparable among women in the CE plus MPA group and the placebo group in HERS, HERS II, and overall. Venous Thromboembolism In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy, a statistically significant 2-fold greater rate of VTE (DVT and PE) was reported in women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) compared to women receiving placebo (35 versus 17 per 10,000 women-years). Statistically significant increases in risk for both DVT (26 versus 13 per 10,000 women-years) and PE (18 versus 8 per 10,000 women-years) were also demonstrated. The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first year and persisted3 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen plus progestin therapy should be discontinued immediately. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, the risk of VTE was increased for women receiving daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone compared to placebo (30 versus 22 per 10,000 women-years), although only the increased risk of DVT reached statistical significance (23 versus 15 per 10,000 women-years). The increase in VTE risk was demonstrated during the first 2 years4 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Should a VTE occur or be suspected, estrogen-alone therapy should be discontinued immediately. If feasible, estrogens should be discontinued at least 4 to 6 weeks before surgery of the type associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism, or during periods of prolonged immobilization. 5.2 Malignant Neoplasms Breast Cancer The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen plus progestin users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg). After a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the estrogen plus progestin substudy reported an increased risk of invasive breast cancer in women who took daily CE plus MPA. In this substudy, prior use of estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy was reported by 26 percent of the women. The relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.24, and the absolute risk was 41 versus 33 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.86, and the absolute risk was 46 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. Among women who reported no prior use of hormone therapy, the relative risk of invasive breast cancer was 1.09, and the absolute risk was 40 versus 36 cases per 10,000 women-years, for CE plus MPA compared with placebo. In the same substudy, invasive breast cancers were larger, were more likely to be node positive, and were diagnosed at a more advanced stage in the CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) group compared with the placebo group. Metastatic disease was rare, with no apparent difference between the two groups. Other prognostic factors, such as histologic subtype, grade and hormone receptor status did not differ between the groups5 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The most important randomized clinical trial providing information about breast cancer in estrogen-alone users is the WHI substudy of daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy, after an average follow-up of 7.1 years, daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone was not associated with an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [relative risk (RR) 0.80] 6 [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. Consistent with the WHI clinical trials, observational studies have also reported an increased risk of breast cancer for estrogen plus progestin therapy, and a smaller increased risk for estrogen-alone therapy, after several years of use. The risk increased with duration of use, and appeared to return to baseline over about 5 years after stopping treatment (only the observational studies have substantial data on risk after stopping). Observational studies also suggest that the risk of breast cancer was greater, and became apparent earlier, with estrogen plus progestin therapy as compared to estrogen-alone therapy. However, these studies have not found significant variation in the risk of breast cancer among different estrogen plus progestin combinations, doses, or routes of administration. The use of estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin has been reported to result in an increase in abnormal mammograms requiring further evaluation. All women should receive yearly breast examinations by a healthcare provider and perform monthly breast self-examinations. In addition, mammography examinations should be scheduled based on patient age, risk factors, and prior mammogram results. Endometrial Cancer Endometrial hyperplasia (a possible precursor of endometrial cancer) has been reported to occur at a rate of approximately 1 percent or less with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. An increased risk of endometrial cancer has been reported with the use of unopposed estrogen therapy in a woman with a uterus. The reported endometrial cancer risk among unopposed estrogen users is about 2 to 12 times greater than in non-users, and appears dependent on duration of treatment and on estrogen dose. Most studies show no significant increased risk associated with use of estrogens for less than 1 year. The greatest risk appears to be associated with prolonged use, with increased risks of 15- to 24-fold for 5 to 10 years or more, and this risk has been shown to persist for at least 8 to 15 years after estrogen therapy is discontinued. Clinical surveillance of all women using estrogen-alone or estrogen plus progestin therapy is important. Adequate diagnostic measures, including directed or random endometrial sampling when indicated, should be undertaken to rule out malignancy in postmenopausal women with undiagnosed persistent or recurring abnormal genital bleeding. There is no evidence that the use of natural estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens of equivalent estrogen dose. Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. Ovarian Cancer The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported a statistically non-significant increased risk of ovarian cancer. After an average follow-up of 5.6 years, the relative risk for ovarian cancer for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 1.58 (95 percent CI, 0.77–3.24). The absolute risk for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 4 versus 3 cases per 10,000 women-years.7 A meta-analysis of 17 prospective and 35 retrospective epidemiology studies found that women who used hormonal therapy for menopausal symptoms had an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The primary analysis, using case-control comparisons, included 12,110 cancer cases from the 17 prospective studies. The relative risks associated with current use of hormonal therapy was 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.50); there was no difference in the risk estimates by duration of the exposure (less than 5 years [median of 3 years] vs. greater than 5 years [median of 10 years] of use before the cancer diagnosis). The relative risk associated with combined current and recent use (discontinued use within 5 years before cancer diagnosis) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.27–1.48), and the elevated risk was significant for both estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin products. The exact duration of hormone therapy use associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer, however, is unknown. 5.3 Probable Dementia In the WHIMS estrogen plus progestin ancillary study of WHI, a population of 4,532 postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg) plus MPA (2.5 mg) or placebo. After an average follow-up of 4 years, 40 women in the CE plus MPA group and 21 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 2.05 (95 percent CI, 1.21–3.48). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE plus MPA versus placebo was 45 versus 22 cases per 10,000 women-years8 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. In the WHIMS estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI, a population of 2,947 hysterectomized women 65 to 79 years of age was randomized to daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone or placebo. After an average follow-up of 5.2 years, 28 women in the estrogen-alone group and 19 women in the placebo group were diagnosed with probable dementia. The relative risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 1.49 (95 percent CI, 0.83–2.66). The absolute risk of probable dementia for CE-alone versus placebo was 37 versus 25 cases per 10,000 women-years8 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. When data from the two populations in the WHIMS estrogen-alone and estrogen plus progestin ancillary studies were pooled as planned in the WHIMS protocol, the reported overall relative risk for probable dementia was 1.76 (95 percent CI, 1.19–2.60). Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. 5.4 Gallbladder Disease A 2- to 4-fold increase in the risk of gallbladder disease requiring surgery in postmenopausal women receiving estrogens has been reported. 5.5 Hypercalcemia Estrogen administration may lead to severe hypercalcemia in women with breast cancer and bone metastases. If hypercalcemia occurs, use of the drug should be stopped and appropriate measures taken to reduce the serum calcium level. 5.6 Visual Abnormalities Retinal vascular thrombosis has been reported in women receiving estrogens. Discontinue medication pending examination if there is sudden partial or complete loss of vision, or a sudden onset of proptosis, diplopia, or migraine. If examination reveals papilledema or retinal vascular lesions, estrogens should be permanently discontinued. 5.7 Addition of a Progestin When a Woman Has Not Had a Hysterectomy Studies of the addition of a progestin for 10 or more days of a cycle of estrogen administration or daily with estrogen in a continuous regimen, have reported a lowered incidence of endometrial hyperplasia than would be induced by estrogen treatment alone. Endometrial hyperplasia may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. There are, however, possible risks that may be associated with the use of progestins with estrogens compared to estrogen-alone regimens. These include an increased risk of breast cancer. 5.8 Elevated Blood Pressure In a small number of case reports, substantial increases in blood pressure have been attributed to idiosyncratic reactions to estrogens. In a large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, a generalized effect of estrogen therapy on blood pressure was not seen. 5.9 Hypertriglyceridemia In women with pre-existing hypertriglyceridemia, estrogen therapy may be associated with elevations of plasma triglycerides leading to pancreatitis. Consider discontinuation of treatment if pancreatitis occurs. 5.10 Hepatic Impairment and/or Past History of Cholestatic Jaundice Estrogens may be poorly metabolized in women with impaired liver function. For women with a history of cholestatic jaundice associated with past estrogen use or with pregnancy, caution should be exercised, and in the case of recurrence, medication should be discontinued. 5.11 Hypothyroidism Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels. Women with normal thyroid function can compensate for the increased TBG by making more thyroid hormone, thus maintaining free T4 and T3 serum concentrations in the normal range. Women dependent on thyroid hormone replacement therapy who are also receiving estrogens may require increased doses of their thyroid replacement therapy. These women should have their thyroid function monitored in order to maintain their free thyroid hormone levels in an acceptable range. 5.12 Fluid Retention Estrogens plus progestins may cause some degree of fluid retention. Women with conditions that might be influenced by this factor, such as cardiac or renal dysfunction, warrant careful observation when estrogens plus progestins are prescribed. 5.13 Hypocalcemia Estrogen therapy should be used with caution in women with hypoparathyroidism as estrogen-induced hypocalcemia may occur. 5.14 Exacerbation of Endometriosis A few cases of malignant transformation of residual endometrial implants have been reported in women treated post-hysterectomy with estrogen-alone therapy. For women known to have residual endometriosis post-hysterectomy, the addition of progestin should be considered. 5.15 Anaphylactic Reaction and Angioedema Cases of anaphylaxis, which developed within minutes to hours after taking PREMPRO or PREMPHASE and require emergency medical management, have been reported in the postmarketing setting. Skin (hives, pruritis, swollen lips-tongue-face) and either respiratory tract (respiratory compromise) or gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, vomiting) involvement has been noted. Angioedema involving the tongue, larynx, face, hands, and feet requiring medical intervention has occurred postmarketing in patients taking PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. If angioedema involves the tongue, glottis, or larynx, airway obstruction may occur. Patients who develop an anaphylactic reaction with or without angioedema after treatment with PREMPRO or PREMPHASE should not receive PREMPRO or PREMPHASE again. 5.16 Hereditary Angioedema Exogenous estrogens may exacerbate symptoms of angioedema in women with hereditary angioedema. 5.17 Exacerbation of Other Conditions Estrogen therapy may cause an exacerbation of asthma, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, migraine, porphyria, systemic lupus erythematosus, and hepatic hemangiomas and should be used with caution in women with these conditions. 5.18 Laboratory Tests Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels have not been shown to be useful in the management of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms and moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy. 5.19 Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions Accelerated prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet aggregation time; increased platelet count; increased factors II, VII antigen, VIII antigen, VIII coagulant activity, IX, X, XII, VII-X complex, II-VII-X complex, and beta-thromboglobulin; decreased levels of antifactor Xa and antithrombin III, decreased antithrombin III activity; increased levels of fibrinogen and fibrinogen activity; increased plasminogen antigen and activity. Increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) leading to increased circulating total thyroid hormone, as measured by protein-bound iodine (PBI), T4 levels (by column or by radioimmunoassay), or T3 levels by radioimmunoassay. T3 resin uptake is decreased, reflecting the elevated TBG. Free T4 and free T3 concentrations are unaltered. Women on thyroid replacement therapy may require higher doses of thyroid hormone. Other binding proteins may be elevated in serum, for example, corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), leading to increased total circulating corticosteroids and sex steroids, respectively. Free hormone concentrations, such as testosterone and estradiol, may be decreased. Other plasma proteins may be increased (angiotensinogen/renin substrate, alpha-1-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin). Increased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL2 cholesterol subfraction concentrations, reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, increased triglyceride levels. Impaired glucose tolerance.

Adverse Reactions

The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Cardiovascular Disorders [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Malignant Neoplasms [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] In two prospective, randomized clinical studies, the most common adverse reactions > 5 percent are abdominal pain, asthenia, back pain, headache, flatulence, nausea, depression, pruritus, breast pain, dysmenorrhea, and leukorrhea. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer Inc. at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trial of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In a 1-year clinical trial that included 678 postmenopausal women treated with PREMPRO and 351 postmenopausal women treated with PREMPHASE, the following adverse reactions occurred at a rate ≥ 1 percent, see Table 1. TABLE 1: ALL TREATMENT RELATEDAT A FREQUENCY ≥ 1 PERCENT Body System PREMPRO 0.625 mg/2.5 mg continuous PREMPRO 0.625 mg/5 mg continuous PREMPHASE 0.625 mg/5 mg sequential Adverse event (n = 340) (n = 338) (n = 351) Body As A Whole Abdominal pain 35 (10%) 51 (15%) 58 (17%) Asthenia 13 (4%) 18 (5%) 21 (6%) Back pain 19 (6%) 16 (5%) 23 (7%) Chest pain 5 (1%) 4 (1%) 4 (1%) Flu syndrome 1 (<1%) 1 (<1%) 4 (1%) Generalized edema 12 (4%) 12 (4%) 8 (2%) Headache 64 (19%) 52 (15%) 66 (19%) Infection 2 (<1%) 4 (1)% 0 Moniliasis 4 (1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%) Pain 12 (4%) 14 (4%) 15 (4%) Pelvic pain 11 (3%) 13 (4%) 16 (5%) Cardiovascular System Hypertension 7 (2%) 7 (2%) 6 (2%) Migraine 6 (2%) 8 (2%) 7 (2%) Palpitation 2 (<1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%) Vasodilatation 2 (<1%) 7 (2%) 2 (<1%) Digestive System Diarrhea 4 (1%) 3 (<1%) 7 (2%) Dyspepsia 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 7 (2%) Eructation 0 2 (<1%) 4 (1%) Flatulence 25 (7%) 27 (8%) 24 (7%) Increased appetite 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) 5 (1%) Nausea 26 (8%) 19 (6%) 26 (7%) Metabolic and Nutritional Edema 5 (1%) 6 (2%) 3 (<1%) Glucose tolerance decreased 2 (<1%) 5 (1%) 4 (1%) Peripheral edema 11 (3%) 10 (3%) 11 (3%) Weight gain 9 (3%) 10 (3%) 11 (3%) Musculoskeletal System Arthralgia 6 (2%) 2 (<1%) 7 (2%) Leg cramps 8 (2%) 11 (3%) 12 (3%) Nervous System Depression 14 (4%) 26 (8%) 29 (8%) Dizziness 9 (3%) 8 (2%) 7 (2%) Emotional lability 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 6 (2%) Hypertonia 4 (1%) 4 (1%) 7 (2%) Insomnia 7 (2%) 6 (2%) 4 (1%) Nervousness 4 (1%) 9 (3%) 6 (2%) Skin and Appendages Acne 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) 4 (1%) Alopecia 3 (<1%) 4 (1%) 0 Dry skin 2 (<1%) 3 (<1%) 4 (1%) Pruritus 20 (6%) 18 (5%) 13 (4%) Rash 8 (2%) 6 (2%) 7 (2%) Sweating 2 (<1%) 4 (1%) 2 (<1%) Urogenital System Breast engorgement 5 (1%) 5 (1%) 0 Breast enlargement 14 (4%) 14 (4%) 14 (4%) Breast neoplasm 2 (<1%) 2 (<1%) 4 (1%) Breast pain 110 (32%) 123 (36%) 109 (31%) Cervix disorder 10 (3%) 6 (2%) 10 (3%) Dysmenorrhea 26 (8%) 18 (5%) 44 (13%) Leukorrhea 19 (6%) 13 (4%) 29 (8%) Menstrual disorder 7 (2%) 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) Menorrhagia 0 1 (<1%) 5 (1%) Metrorrhagia 13 (4%) 5 (1%) 7 (1%) Papanicolaou smear suspicious 5 (1%) 0 8 (2%) Urinary incontinence 4 (1%) 2 (<1%) 1 (<1%) Uterine spasm 7 (2%) 4 (1%) 7 (2%) Vaginal hemorrhage 5 (1%) 3 (<1%) 8 (2%) Vaginal moniliasis 5 (1%) 6 (2%) 7 (2%) Vaginitis 13 (4%) 13 (4%) 10 (3%) In addition, phargyngitis and sinusitis were reported as two of the more frequent adverse events (>5 percent) in the PREMPRO clinical study. For pharyngitis, of the 121 events, six events were considered by the investigator causally related to study drug. For sinusitis, of the 73 events, one event was considered as casually related to study drug. During the first year of a 2-year clinical trial with postmenopausal women between 40 and 65 years of age (88 percent Caucasian), 989 postmenopausal women received continuous regimens of PREMPRO, and 332 received placebo tablets. Table 2 summarizes adverse reactions that occurred at a rate ≥ 1 percent in at least 1 treatment group. TABLE 2: ALL TREATMENT RELATEDAT A FREQUENCY OF ≥ 1 PERCENT Body System Adverse event PREMPRO 0.625/2.5 continuous (N=331) PREMPRO 0.45/1.5 continuous (N=331) PREMPRO 0.3/1.5 continuous (N=327) PLACEBO daily (N=332) Any adverse event 214 (65) 208 (63) 188 (57) 164 (49) Body as a Whole Abdominal pain 38 (11) 33 (10) 24 (7) 21 (6) Asthenia 11 (3) 11 (3) 12 (4) 3 (1) Back pain 12 (4) 12 (4) 8 (2) 4 (1) Chest pain 4 (1) 2 (1) 1 (0) 2 (1) Generalized edema 7 (2) 5 (2) 6 (2) 8 (2) Headache 45 (14) 45 (14) 57 (17) 46 (14) Moniliasis 3 (1) 6 (2) 4 (1) 1 (0) Pain 9 (3) 10 (3) 17 (5) 14 (4) Pelvic pain 9 (3) 7 (2) 5 (2) 4 (1) Cardiovascular System Hypertension 2 (1) 3 (1) 1 (0) 5 (2) Migraine 11 (3) 8 (2) 5 (2) 3 (1) Palpitation 1 (0) 1 (0) 2 (1) 4 (1) Vasodilatation 0 3 (1) 1 (0) 5 (2) Digestive System Constipation 5 (2) 7 (2) 6 (2) 3 (1) Diarrhea 5 (2) 2 (1) 6 (2) 8 (2) Dyspepsia 10 (3) 9 (3) 6 (2) 14 (4) Flatulence 16 (5) 18 (5) 13 (4) 8 (2) Increased appetite 6 (2) 2 (1) 0 2 (1) Nausea 13 (4) 13 (4) 16 (5) 16 (5) Metabolic and nutritional Peripheral edema 7 (2) 8 (2) 4 (1) 3 (1) Weight gain 9 (3) 8 (2) 6 (2) 14 (4) Musculoskeletal System Arthralgia 2 (1) 3 (1) 3 (1) 5 (2) Leg cramps 13 (4) 7 (2) 10 (3) 4 (1) Nervous System Anxiety 5 (2) 4 (1) 1 (0) 4 (1) Depression 23 (7) 11 (3) 11 (3) 17 (5) Dizziness 3 (1) 8 (2) 6 (2) 5 (2) Emotional lability 10 (3) 10 (3) 9 (3) 8 (2) Insomnia 8 (2) 7 (2) 9 (3) 14 (4) Nervousness 6 (2) 3 (1) 4 (1) 6 (2) Skin and Appendages Acne 7 (2) 3 (1) 0 3 (1) Alopecia 1 (0) 6 (2) 4 (1) 2 (1) Pruritus 8 (2) 10 (3) 9 (3) 3 (1) Rash 0 6 (2) 4 (1) 2 (1) Skin discoloration 5 (2) 1 (0) 3 (1) 1 (0) Sweating 3 (1) 1 (0) 0 4 (1) Urogenital System Breast disorder 7 (2) 6 (2) 5 (2) 6 (2) Breast enlargement 18 (5) 9 (3) 5 (2) 3 (1) Breast neoplasm 8 (2) 7 (2) 5 (2) 7 (2) Breast pain 87 (26) 66 (20) 41 (13) 26 (8) Cervix disorder 7 (2) 2 (1) 2 (1) 0 Dysmenorrhea 14 (4) 18 (5) 9 (3) 2 (1) Hematuria 4 (1) 3 (1) 1 (0) 2 (1) Leukorrhea 7 (2) 14 (4) 9 (3) 6 (2) Metrorrhagia 7 (2) 14 (4) 4 (1) 1 (0) Urinary tract infection 0 1 (0) 1 (0) 4 (1) Uterine spasm 13 (4) 11 (3) 7 (2) 2 (1) Vaginal dryness 2 (1) 1 (0) 0 6 (2) Vaginal hemorrhage 18 (5) 14 (4) 7 (2) 0 Vaginal moniliasis 13 (4) 11 (3) 8 (2) 5 (2) Vaginitis 6 (2) 8 (2) 7 (2) 1 (0) In addition, the following events were considered as related to the study drug with an incidence less than 1 percent, including accidental injury, infection, myalgia, cough increased, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory infection. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Genitourinary System Abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea or pelvic pain, increase in size of uterine leiomyomata, vaginitis, vaginal candidiasis, amenorrhea, changes in cervical secretion, ovarian cancer, endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer. Breasts Tenderness, enlargement, pain, nipple discharge, galactorrhea, fibrocystic breast changes, breast cancer. Cardiovascular Deep and superficial venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, superficial thrombophlebitis, myocardial infarction, stroke, increase in blood pressure. Gastrointestinal Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, bloating, cholestatic jaundice, increased incidence of gallbladder disease, pancreatitis, changes in appetite, ischemic colitis. Skin Chloasma or melasma that may persist when drug is discontinued, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, loss of scalp hair, hirsutism, pruritus, urticaria, rash, acne. Eyes Retinal vascular thrombosis, intolerance of contact lenses. Central Nervous System Headache, migraine, dizziness, mental depression, exacerbation of chorea, mood disturbances, anxiety, irritability, exacerbation of epilepsy, dementia, growth potentiation of benign meningioma. Miscellaneous Increase or decrease in weight, arthralgia, glucose intolerance, edema, changes in libido, exacerbation of asthma, increased triglycerides, hypersensitivity. Additional postmarketing adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving other forms of hormone therapy.

Drug Interactions

Data from a single-dose drug-drug interaction study involving conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate indicate that the pharmacokinetic disposition of both drugs is not altered when the drugs are coadministered. No other clinical drug-drug interaction studies have been conducted with CE plus MPA. Inducers and/or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism (7.1) Aminoglutethimide administered concomitantly with MPA may significantly depress the bioavailability of medroxyprogesterone acetate (7.1) 7.1 Metabolic Interactions In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that estrogens are metabolized partially by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Therefore, inducers or inhibitors of CYP3A4 may affect estrogen drug metabolism. Inducers of CYP3A4, such as St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) preparations, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and rifampin, may reduce plasma concentrations of estrogens, possibly resulting in a decrease in therapeutic effects and/or changes in the uterine bleeding profile. Inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir and grapefruit juice, may increase plasma concentrations of estrogens and may result in side effects. Aminoglutethimide administered concomitantly with MPA may significantly depress the bioavailability of MPA.

Use In Specific Populations

Nursing Mothers: Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of breast milk (8.3) Geriatric Use: An increased risk of probable dementia in women over 65 years of age was reported in the Women's Health Initiative Memory ancillary studies of the Women's Health Initiative (5.3, 8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during pregnancy [see Contraindications (4)]. There appears to be little or no increased risk of birth defects in children born to women who have used estrogens and progestins as an oral contraceptive inadvertently during early pregnancy. 8.3 Nursing Mothers PREMPRO and PREMPHASE should not be used during lactation. Estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and quality of the breast milk. Detectable amounts of estrogen and progestin have been identified in the breast milk of women receiving these drugs. Caution should be exercised when PREMPRO or PREMPHASE is administered to a nursing woman. 8.4 Pediatric Use PREMPRO and PREMPHASE are not indicated in children. Clinical studies have not been conducted in the pediatric population. 8.5 Geriatric Use There have not been sufficient numbers of geriatric women involved in clinical studies utilizing PREMPRO or PREMPHASE to determine whether those over 65 years of age differ from younger subjects in their response to PREMPRO or PREMPHASE. The Women's Health Initiative Studies In the WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg] plus MPA [2.5 mg] versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of nonfatal stroke and invasive breast cancer in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. In the WHI estrogen-alone substudy (daily CE [0.625 mg]-alone versus placebo), there was a higher relative risk of stroke in women greater than 65 years of age [see Clinical Studies (14.6)]. The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study In the WHIMS ancillary studies of postmenopausal women 65 to 79 years of age, there was an increased risk of developing probable dementia in women receiving estrogen plus progestin or estrogen-alone when compared to placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. Since both ancillary studies were conducted in women 65 to 79 years of age, it is unknown whether these findings apply to younger postmenopausal women8 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Clinical Studies (14.7)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment The effects of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE have not been studied. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of PREMPRO or PREMPHASE have not been studied.