This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Onglyza safely and effectively. Before taking Onglyza please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Onglyza.
Indications And Usage
ONGLYZA is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (1.1, 14) Limitation of use: •Not used for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis. (1.2) 1.1 Monotherapy and Combination Therapy ONGLYZA is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. 1.2 Limitation of Use ONGLYZA is not indicated for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis, as it would not be effective in these settings.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
•ONGLYZA (saxagliptin) 5 mg tablets are pink, biconvex, round, film-coated tablets with “5” printed on one side and “4215” printed on the reverse side, in blue ink. •ONGLYZA (saxagliptin) 2.5 mg tablets are pale yellow to light yellow, biconvex, round, film-coated tablets with “2.5” printed on one side and “4214” printed on the reverse side, in blue ink. •Tablets: 5 mg and 2.5 mg. (3)
ONGLYZA is contraindicated in patients with a history of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to ONGLYZA, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, or exfoliative skin conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) and Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. •History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema, exfoliative skin conditions) to ONGLYZA. (4)
Warning and Cautions
• Pancreatitis: If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue ONGLYZA. (5.1) • Heart Failure: Consider the risks and benefits of ONGLYZA in patients who have known risk factors for heart failure. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms. (5.2) • Hypoglycemia: In add-on to sulfonylurea, add-on to insulin, and add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea trials, confirmed hypoglycemia was more common in patients treated with ONGLYZA compared to placebo. When used with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin, a lower dose of insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. (5.3, 6.1) • Hypersensitivity-Related Events (e.g., urticaria, facial edema): More common in patients treated with ONGLYZA than in patients treated with placebo; and postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions. Promptly discontinue ONGLYZA, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment, and initiate alternative treatment for diabetes. (5.4, 6.1, 6.2) • Arthralgia: Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported in patients taking DPP4 inhibitors. Consider as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. (5.5) • Bullous Pemphigoid: There have been postmarketing reports of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, discontinue ONGLYZA. (5.6) • Macrovascular Outcomes: There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with ONGLYZA. (5.7) 5.1 Pancreatitis There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients taking ONGLYZA. In a cardiovascular outcomes trial enrolling participants with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or multiple risk factors for ASCVD (SAVOR trial), cases of definite acute pancreatitis were confirmed in 17 of 8240 (0.2%) patients receiving ONGLYZA compared to 9 of 8173 (0.1%) receiving placebo. Preexisting risk factors for pancreatitis were identified in 88% (15/17) of those patients receiving ONGLYZA and in 100% (9/9) of those patients receiving placebo. After initiation of ONGLYZA, observe patients for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue ONGLYZA and initiate appropriate management. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using ONGLYZA. 5.2 Heart Failure In a cardiovascular outcomes trial enrolling participants with established ASCVD or multiple risk factors for ASCVD (SAVOR trial), more patients randomized to ONGLYZA (289/8280, 3.5%) were hospitalized for heart failure compared to patients randomized to placebo (228/8212, 2.8%). In a time-to-first-event analysis the risk of hospitalization for heart failure was higher in the ONGLYZA group (estimated Hazard Ratio: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.51). Subjects with a prior history of heart failure and subjects with renal impairment had a higher risk for hospitalization for heart failure, irrespective of treatment assignment. Consider the risks and benefits of ONGLYZA prior to initiating treatment in patients at a higher risk for heart failure. Observe patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of ONGLYZA. 5.3 Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin When ONGLYZA was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of confirmed hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Therefore, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with ONGLYZA [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ]. 5.4 Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with ONGLYZA. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with ONGLYZA, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue ONGLYZA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ]. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with ONGLYZA. 5.5 Severe and Disabling Arthralgia There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP4 inhibitor. Consider DPP4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. 5.6 Bullous Pemphigoid Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP‑4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving ONGLYZA. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, ONGLYZA should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. 5.7 Macrovascular Outcomes There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with ONGLYZA.
The following serious adverse reactions are described below or elsewhere in the prescribing information: • Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] • Heart Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] • Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] • Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] • Severe and disabling arthralgia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] • Bullous pemphigoid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] •Adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients treated with ONGLYZA and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo are upper respiratory tract infection, urinary tract infection, and headache. (6.1) •Peripheral edema was reported more commonly in patients treated with the combination of ONGLYZA and a thiazolidinedione (TZD) than in patients treated with the combination of placebo and TZD. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AstraZeneca at 1-800-236-9933 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Adverse Reactions in Efficacy Trials The data in Table 1 are derived from a pool of 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. These data shown in the table reflect exposure of 882 patients to ONGLYZA and a mean duration of exposure to ONGLYZA of 21 weeks. The mean age of these patients was 55 years, 1.4 % were 75 years or older and 48.4% were male. The population was 67.5% White, 4.6% Black or African American, 17.4% Asian, Other 10.5% and 9.8% were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 5.2 years and a mean HbA1c of 8.2%. Baseline estimated renal function was normal or mildly impaired (eGFR≥60mL/min/1.73 m2) in 91% of these patients. Table 1 shows common adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, associated with the use of ONGLYZA. These adverse reactions occurred more commonly on ONGLYZA than on placebo and occurred in at least 5% of patients treated with ONGLYZA. Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Placebo-Controlled TrialsThe 5 placebo-controlled trials include two monotherapy trials and one add-on combination therapy trial with each of the following: metformin, thiazolidinedione, or glyburide. Table shows 24-week data regardless of glycemic rescue. Reported in ≥5% of Patients Treated with ONGLYZA 5 mg and More Commonly than in Patients Treated with Placebo % of Patients ONGLYZA 5 mg N=882 Placebo N=799 Upper respiratory tract infection 7.7 7.6 Urinary tract infection 6.8 6.1 Headache 6.5 5.9 In patients treated with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg, headache (6.5%) was the only adverse reaction reported at a rate ≥5% and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo. In the add-on to TZD trial, the incidence of peripheral edema was higher for ONGLYZA 5 mg versus placebo (8.1% and 4.3%, respectively). The incidence of peripheral edema for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg was 3.1%. None of the reported adverse reactions of peripheral edema resulted in study drug discontinuation. Rates of peripheral edema for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and ONGLYZA 5 mg versus placebo were 3.6% and 2% versus 3% given as monotherapy, 2.1% and 2.1% versus 2.2% given as add-on therapy to metformin, and 2.4% and 1.2% versus 2.2% given as add-on therapy to glyburide. The incidence rate of fractures was 1.0 and 0.6 per 100 patient-years, respectively, for ONGLYZA (pooled analysis of 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg) and placebo. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. The incidence rate of fracture events in patients who received ONGLYZA did not increase over time. Causality has not been established and nonclinical studies have not demonstrated adverse effects of ONGLYZA on bone. An event of thrombocytopenia, consistent with a diagnosis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, was observed in the clinical program. The relationship of this event to ONGLYZA is not known. Discontinuation of therapy due to adverse reactions occurred in 2.2%, 3.3%, and 1.8% of subjects receiving ONGLYZA 2.5 mg, ONGLYZA 5 mg, and placebo, respectively. The most common adverse reactions (reported in at least 2 subjects treated with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg or at least 2 subjects treated with ONGLYZA 5 mg) associated with premature discontinuation of therapy included lymphopenia (0.1% and 0.5% versus 0%, respectively), rash (0.2% and 0.3% versus 0.3%), blood creatinine increased (0.3% and 0% versus 0%), and blood creatine phosphokinase increased (0.1% and 0.2% versus 0%). Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Use with Insulin In the add-on to insulin trial [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ], the incidence of adverse events, including serious adverse events and discontinuations due to adverse events, was similar between ONGLYZA and placebo, except for confirmed hypoglycemia [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Hypoglycemia Adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of hypoglycemia. A concurrent glucose measurement was not required or was normal in some patients. Therefore, it is not possible to conclusively determine that all these reports reflect true hypoglycemia. In the add-on to glyburide study, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was higher for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and ONGLYZA 5 mg (13.3% and 14.6%) versus placebo (10.1%). The incidence of confirmed hypoglycemia in this study, defined as symptoms of hypoglycemia accompanied by a fingerstick glucose value of ≤50 mg/dL, was 2.4% and 0.8% for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and ONGLYZA 5 mg and 0.7% for placebo [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. The incidence of reported hypoglycemia for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and ONGLYZA 5 mg versus placebo given as monotherapy was 4% and 5.6% versus 4.1%, respectively, 7.8% and 5.8% versus 5% given as add-on therapy to metformin, and 4.1% and 2.7% versus 3.8% given as add-on therapy to TZD. The incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 3.4% in treatment-naive patients given ONGLYZA 5 mg plus metformin and 4% in patients given metformin alone. In the active-controlled trial comparing add-on therapy with ONGLYZA 5 mg to glipizide in patients inadequately controlled on metformin alone, the incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 3% (19 events in 13 patients) with ONGLYZA 5 mg versus 36.3% (750 events in 156 patients) with glipizide. Confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick blood glucose ≤50 mg/dL) was reported in none of the ONGLYZA-treated patients and in 35 glipizide-treated patients (8.1%) (p<0.0001). In the add-on to insulin trial, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 18.4% for ONGLYZA 5 mg and 19.9% for placebo. However, the incidence of confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick blood glucose ≤50 mg/dL) was higher with ONGLYZA 5 mg (5.3%) versus placebo (3.3%). In the add-on to metformin plus sulfonylurea trial, the overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 10.1% for ONGLYZA 5 mg and 6.3% for placebo. Confirmed hypoglycemia was reported in 1.6% of the ONGLYZA-treated patients and in none of the placebo-treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity-related events, such as urticaria and facial edema in the 5-study pooled analysis up to Week 24 were reported in 1.5%, 1.5%, and 0.4% of patients who received ONGLYZA 2.5 mg, ONGLYZA 5 mg, and placebo, respectively. None of these events in patients who received ONGLYZA required hospitalization or were reported as life-threatening by the investigators. One ONGLYZA-treated patient in this pooled analysis discontinued due to generalized urticaria and facial edema. Renal Impairment In the SAVOR trial, adverse reactions related to renal impairment, including laboratory changes (i.e., doubling of serum creatinine compared with baseline and serum creatinine >6 mg/dL), were reported in 5.8% (483/8280) of ONGLYZA-treated subjects and 5.1% (422/8212) of placebo-treated subjects. The most frequently reported adverse reactions included renal impairment (2.1% vs. 1.9%), acute renal failure (1.4% vs. 1.2%), and renal failure (0.8% vs. 0.9%), in the ONGLYZA versus placebo groups, respectively. From baseline to the end of treatment, there was a mean decrease in eGFR of 2.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 for ONGLYZA-treated patients and a mean decrease of 2.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 for placebo-treated patients. More subjects randomized to ONGLYZA (421/5227, 8.1%) compared to subjects randomized to placebo (344/5073, 6.8%) had downward shifts in eGFR from >50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (i.e., normal or mild renal impairment) to ≤50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (i.e., moderate or severe renal impairment). The proportions of subjects with renal adverse reactions increased with worsening baseline renal function and increased age, regardless of treatment assignment. Infections In the unblinded, controlled, clinical trial database for ONGLYZA to date, there have been 6 (0.12%) reports of tuberculosis among the 4959 ONGLYZA-treated patients (1.1 per 1000 patient-years) compared to no reports of tuberculosis among the 2868 comparator-treated patients. Two of these six cases were confirmed with laboratory testing. The remaining cases had limited information or had presumptive diagnoses of tuberculosis. None of the six cases occurred in the United States or in Western Europe. One case occurred in Canada in a patient originally from Indonesia who had recently visited Indonesia. The duration of treatment with ONGLYZA until report of tuberculosis ranged from 144 to 929 days. Post-treatment lymphocyte counts were consistently within the reference range for four cases. One patient had lymphopenia prior to initiation of ONGLYZA that remained stable throughout ONGLYZA treatment. The final patient had an isolated lymphocyte count below normal approximately four months prior to the report of tuberculosis. There have been no spontaneous reports of tuberculosis associated with ONGLYZA use. Causality has not been estimated and there are too few cases to date to determine whether tuberculosis is related to ONGLYZA use. There has been one case of a potential opportunistic infection in the unblinded, controlled clinical trial database to date in an ONGLYZA-treated patient who developed suspected foodborne fatal salmonella sepsis after approximately 600 days of ONGLYZA therapy. There have been no spontaneous reports of opportunistic infections associated with ONGLYZA use. Vital Signs No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs have been observed in patients treated with ONGLYZA. Laboratory Tests Absolute Lymphocyte Counts There was a dose-related mean decrease in absolute lymphocyte count observed with ONGLYZA. From a baseline mean absolute lymphocyte count of approximately 2200 cells/microL, mean decreases of approximately 100 and 120 cells/microL with ONGLYZA 5 mg and 10 mg, respectively, relative to placebo were observed at 24 weeks in a pooled analysis of five placebo-controlled clinical studies. Similar effects were observed when ONGLYZA 5 mg was given in initial combination with metformin compared to metformin alone. There was no difference observed for ONGLYZA 2.5 mg relative to placebo. The proportion of patients who were reported to have a lymphocyte count ≤750 cells/microL was 0.5%, 1.5%, 1.4%, and 0.4% in the ONGLYZA 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, and placebo groups, respectively. In most patients, recurrence was not observed with repeated exposure to ONGLYZA although some patients had recurrent decreases upon rechallenge that led to discontinuation of ONGLYZA. The decreases in lymphocyte count were not associated with clinically relevant adverse reactions. The 10 mg dosage is not an approved dosage. In the SAVOR trial mean decreases of approximately 84 cells/microL with ONGLYZA relative to placebo was observed. The proportion of patients who experienced a decrease in lymphocyte counts to a count of ≤750 cells/microL was 1.6% (136/8280) and 1.0% (78/8212) on ONGLYZA and placebo respectively. The clinical significance of this decrease in lymphocyte count relative to placebo is not known. When clinically indicated, such as in settings of unusual or prolonged infection, lymphocyte count should be measured. The effect of ONGLYZA on lymphocyte counts in patients with lymphocyte abnormalities (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus) is unknown. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of ONGLYZA. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. •Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions •Pancreatitis •Severe and disabling arthralgia •Bullous pemphigoid •Rhabdomyolysis
• Strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole): Coadministration with ONGLYZA significantly increases saxagliptin concentrations. Recommend limiting ONGLYZA dosage to 2.5 mg once daily. (2.3, 7.1) 7.1 Strong Inhibitors of CYP3A4/5 Enzymes Ketoconazole significantly increased saxagliptin exposure. Similar significant increases in plasma concentrations of saxagliptin are anticipated with other strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitors (e.g., atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and telithromycin). The dose of ONGLYZA should be limited to 2.5 mg when coadministered with a strong CYP3A4/5 inhibitor [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Use In Specific Populations
8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Limited data with ONGLYZA in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriages. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations ]. No adverse developmental effects independent of maternal toxicity were observed when saxagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis and in pregnant and lactating rats during the pre- and postnatal period [see Data ]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6 to 10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1c greater than 7 and has been reported to be as high as 20 to 25% in women with an HbA1c greater than 10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Animal Data In embryo-fetal development studies, saxagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis, corresponding to the first trimester of human pregnancy. No adverse developmental effects were observed in either species at exposures 1503- and 152-times the 5 mg clinical dose in rats and rabbits, respectively, based on AUC. Saxagliptin crosses the placenta into the fetus following dosing in pregnant rats. In a prenatal and postnatal development study, no adverse developmental effects were observed in maternal rats administered saxagliptin from gestation day 6 through lactation day 21 at exposures up to 470-times the 5 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of ONGLYZA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Saxagliptin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ONGLYZA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from ONGLYZA or from the underlying maternal condition. Data Saxagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at approximately a 1:1 ratio with plasma drug concentrations. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of ONGLYZA in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established. Additionally, studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of ONGLYZA in pediatric patients have not been performed. 8.5 Geriatric Use In the seven, double-blind, controlled clinical safety and efficacy trials of ONGLYZA, a total of 4751 (42.0%) of the 11301 patients randomized to ONGLYZA were 65 years and over, and 1210 (10.7%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects ≥65 years old and younger subjects. While this clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Saxagliptin and its active metabolite are eliminated in part by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection in the elderly based on renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.6 Renal Impairment In a 12-week randomized placebo-controlled trial, ONGLYZA 2.5 mg was administered to 85 subjects with moderate (n=48) or severe (n=18) renal impairment or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (n=19) [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. The incidence of adverse events, including serious adverse events and discontinuations due to adverse events, was similar between ONGLYZA and placebo. The overall incidence of reported hypoglycemia was 20% among subjects treated with ONGLYZA 2.5 mg and 22% among subjects treated with placebo. Four ONGLYZA-treated subjects (4.7%) and three placebo-treated subjects (3.5%) reported at least one episode of confirmed symptomatic hypoglycemia (accompanying fingerstick glucose ≤50 mg/dL).