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Indications And Usage
NUVIGIL is indicated to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), narcolepsy, or shift work disorder (SWD). Limitations of Use In OSA, NUVIGIL is indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction. If continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for a patient, a maximal effort to treat with CPAP for an adequate period of time should be made prior to initiating NUVIGIL for excessive sleepiness. NUVIGIL is indicated to improve wakefulness in adult patients with excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), narcolepsy, or shift work disorder (SWD). (1) Limitations of Use In OSA, NUVIGIL is indicated to treat excessive sleepiness and not as treatment for the underlying obstruction.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
50 mg – round, white to off-white tablet with on one side and "205" on the other 150 mg – oval, white to off-white tablet with on one side and "215" on the other 200 mg – rounded, rectangular, white to off-white tablet with on one side and "220" on the other 250 mg – oval, white to off-white tablet with on one side and "225" on the other Tablets: 50 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, and 250 mg. (3) stylized c stylized c stylized c stylized c
NUVIGIL is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to modafinil or armodafinil or its inactive ingredients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3)]. NUVIGIL is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to modafinil or armodafinil. (4)
Warning and Cautions
Serious Rash, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: discontinue NUVIGIL at the first sign of rash, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. (5.1) DRESS/Multi-organ Hypersensitivity Reactions: if suspected, discontinue NUVIGIL. (5.2) Angioedema and Anaphylaxis Reactions: if suspected, discontinue NUVIGIL. (5.3) Persistent Sleepiness: assess patients frequently for degree of sleepiness and, if appropriate, advise patients to avoid driving or engaging in any other potentially dangerous activity. (5.4) Psychiatric Symptoms: use particular caution in treating patients with a history of psychosis, depression, or mania. Consider discontinuing NUVIGIL if psychiatric symptoms develop. (5.5) Known Cardiovascular Disease: consider increased monitoring. (5.7) 5.1 Serious Dermatologic Reactions, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrosis Serious rash requiring hospitalization and discontinuation of treatment has been reported in association with the use of NUVIGIL (armodafinil) or modafinil (the racemic mixture of S- and R-enantiomers). NUVIGIL has not been studied in pediatric patients in any setting and is not approved for use in pediatric patients for any indication. In clinical trials of modafinil, the incidence of rash resulting in discontinuation was approximately 0.8% (13 per 1,585) in pediatric patients (age <17 years); these rashes included 1 case of possible Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and 1 case of apparent multi-organ hypersensitivity reaction/ Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Several of the cases were associated with fever and other abnormalities (e.g., vomiting, leukopenia). The median time to rash that resulted in discontinuation was 13 days. No such cases were observed among 380 pediatric patients who received placebo. Skin and mouth sores, blistering, and ulceration have been reported with modafinil and NUVIGIL in the postmarketing setting. Recurrence of signs and symptoms of serious dermatologic reactions following rechallenge has been reported in some cases. Rare cases of serious or life-threatening rash, including SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), have been reported in adults and children in worldwide postmarketing experience with modafinil and NUVIGIL. There are no factors, including duration of therapy, that are known to predict the risk of occurrence or the severity of rash associated with modafinil or NUVIGIL. In cases where the time to onset was reported, serious rash occurred 1 day to 2 months after initiation of treatment, but isolated cases of serious dermatologic reactions have been reported with symptoms beginning after prolonged treatment (e.g., 3 months). Although benign rashes also occur with NUVIGIL, it is not possible to reliably predict which rashes will prove to be serious. Accordingly, NUVIGIL should be discontinued at the first sign of rash, skin or mouth sores, or blistering or ulceration, unless the rash is clearly not drug-related. Discontinuation of treatment may not prevent a rash from becoming life-threatening or permanently disabling or disfiguring. 5.2 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and System Symptoms (DRESS)/Multiorgan Hypersensitivity DRESS, also known as multi-organ hypersensitivity, has been reported with NUVIGIL. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and/or facial swelling, in association with other organ system involvement, such as hepatitis, nephritis, hematologic abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis, sometimes resembling an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. This disorder is variable in its expression, and other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity (e.g., fever, lymphadenopathy) may be present even though rash is not evident. One fatal case of DRESS that occurred in close temporal association (3 weeks) with the initiation of NUVIGIL treatment has been reported in the postmarketing setting. In addition, multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions, including at least one fatality in postmarketing experience, have occurred in close temporal association (median time to detection 13 days; range 4-33) to the initiation of modafinil. Although there have been a limited number of reports, multi-organ hypersensitivity reactions may result in hospitalization or be life-threatening. If a multi-organ hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, NUVIGIL should be discontinued. Although there are no case reports to indicate cross-sensitivity with other drugs that produce this syndrome, the experience with drugs associated with multi-organ hypersensitivity would indicate this to be a possibility. 5.3 Angioedema and Anaphylaxis Reactions Angioedema and hypersensitivity (with rash, dysphagia, and bronchospasm), were observed with NUVIGIL. Patients should be advised to discontinue therapy and immediately report to their physician any signs or symptoms suggesting angioedema or anaphylaxis (e.g., swelling of face, eyes, lips, tongue or larynx; difficulty in swallowing or breathing; hoarseness). 5.4 Persistent Sleepiness Patients with abnormal levels of sleepiness who take NUVIGIL should be advised that their level of wakefulness may not return to normal. Patients with excessive sleepiness, including those taking NUVIGIL, should be frequently reassessed for their degree of sleepiness and, if appropriate, advised to avoid driving or any other potentially dangerous activity. Prescribers should also be aware that patients may not acknowledge sleepiness or drowsiness until directly questioned about drowsiness or sleepiness during specific activities. 5.5 Psychiatric Symptoms In pre-approval narcolepsy, OSA and SWD controlled trials of NUVIGIL, anxiety, agitation, nervousness, and irritability were reasons for treatment discontinuation more often in patients on NUVIGIL compared to placebo (NUVIGIL 1.2% and placebo 0.3%). Depression was also a reason for treatment discontinuation more often in patients on NUVIGIL compared to placebo (NUVIGIL 0.6% and placebo 0.2%). Cases of suicidal ideation were observed in clinical trials. Caution should be exercised when NUVIGIL is given to patients with a history of psychosis, depression, or mania. If psychiatric symptoms develop in association with NUVIGIL administration, consider discontinuing NUVIGIL. Psychiatric adverse reactions have been reported in patients treated with modafinil. Modafinil and NUVIGIL (armodafinil) are very closely related. Therefore, the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms associated with NUVIGIL are expected to be similar to the incidence and type of these events with modafinil. Postmarketing adverse reactions associated with the use of NUVIGIL, some of which have resulted in hospitalization, have included mania, delusions, hallucinations, suicidal ideation, and aggression. Many, but not all, patients who developed psychiatric adverse reactions had a prior psychiatric history. In these cases, reported NUVIGIL total daily doses ranged from 50 mg to 450 mg, which includes doses below and above the recommended dosages. 5.6 Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machinery Although NUVIGIL has not been shown to produce functional impairment, any drug affecting the central nervous system (CNS) may alter judgment, thinking or motor skills. Patients should be cautioned about operating an automobile or other hazardous machinery until it is reasonably certain that NUVIGIL therapy will not adversely affect their ability to engage in such activities. 5.7 Cardiovascular Events In clinical studies of modafinil, cardiovascular adverse reactions, including chest pain, palpitations, dyspnea and transient ischemic T-wave changes on ECG were observed in three subjects in association with mitral valve prolapse or left ventricular hypertrophy. It is recommended that NUVIGIL tablets not be used in patients with a history of left ventricular hypertrophy or in patients with mitral valve prolapse who have experienced the mitral valve prolapse syndrome when previously receiving CNS stimulants. Findings suggestive of mitral valve prolapse syndrome include but are not limited to ischemic ECG changes, chest pain, or arrhythmia. If new onset of any of these findings occurs, consider cardiac evaluation. Blood pressure monitoring in short term (≤ 3 months) pre-approval controlled trials of OSA, SWD, and narcolepsy showed small average increases in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients receiving NUVIGIL as compared to placebo (1.2 to 4.3 mmHg in the various experimental groups). There was also a slightly greater proportion of patients on NUVIGIL requiring new or increased use of antihypertensive medications (2.9%) compared to patients on placebo (1.8%). There was a small, but consistent, average increase in pulse rate over placebo in pre-approval controlled trials. This increase varied from 0.9 to 3.5 BPM. Increased monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure may be appropriate in patients on NUVIGIL. Caution should be exercised when prescribing NUVIGIL to patients with known cardiovascular disease.
The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Serious Dermatologic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and System Symptoms (DRESS)/Multiorgan Hypersensitivity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Angioedema and Anaphylaxis Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Persistent Sleepiness [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Psychiatric Symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Effects on Ability to Drive and Use Machinery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Cardiovascular Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Most common adverse reactions (≥5%): headache, nausea, dizziness, and insomnia. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Teva Pharmaceuticals at 1-888-483-8279 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. NUVIGIL has been evaluated for safety in over 1,100 patients with excessive sleepiness associated with OSA, SWD, and narcolepsy. Most Common Adverse Reactions In the placebo-controlled clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions (≥5%) associated with the use of NUVIGIL more frequently than in placebo-treated patients were headache, nausea, dizziness, and insomnia. The adverse reaction profile was similar across the studies. Table 1 presents the adverse reactions that occurred at a rate of 1% or more and were more frequent in NUVIGIL-treated patients than in placebo-treated patients in the placebo-controlled clinical trials. Table 1: Adverse Reactions in Pooled Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials* in OSA, Narcolepsy, and SWD with NUVIGIL (150 mg and 250 mg) NUVIGIL (%) N=645 Placebo (%) N=445 * Adverse reactions that occurred in >1% of NUVIGIL-treated patients and greater incidence than that of placebo. Headache 17 9 Nausea 7 3 Dizziness 5 2 Insomnia 5 1 Anxiety 4 1 Diarrhea 4 2 Dry Mouth 4 1 Depression 2 0 Dyspepsia 2 0 Fatigue 2 1 Palpitations 2 1 Rash 2 0 Upper Abdominal Pain 2 1 Agitation 1 0 Anorexia 1 0 Constipation 1 0 Contact Dermatitis 1 0 Decreased Appetite 1 0 Depressed Mood 1 0 Disturbance In Attention 1 0 Dyspnea 1 0 Hyperhydrosis 1 0 Increased Gamma-Glutamyltransferase 1 0 Increased Heart Rate 1 0 Influenza-Like Illness 1 0 Loose Stools 1 0 Migraine 1 0 Nervousness 1 0 Pain 1 0 Paresthesia 1 0 Polyuria 1 0 Pyrexia 1 0 Seasonal Allergy 1 0 Thirst 1 0 Tremor 1 0 Vomiting 1 0 Dose-Dependent Adverse Reactions In the placebo-controlled clinical trials which compared doses of 150 mg/day and 250 mg/day of NUVIGIL and placebo, the following adverse reactions were dose-related: headache, rash, depression, dry mouth, insomnia, and nausea. See Table 2 for additional information. Table 2: Dose-Dependent Adverse Reactions in Pooled Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials in OSA, Narcolepsy and SWD NUVIGIL 250 mg (%) N=198 NUVIGIL 150 mg (%) N=447 NUVIGIL Combined (%) N=645 Placebo (%) N=445 Headache 23 14 17 9 Nausea 9 6 7 3 Insomnia 6 4 5 1 Dry Mouth 7 2 4 <1 Rash 4 1 2 <1 Depression 3 1 2 <1 Adverse Reactions Resulting in Discontinuation of Treatment In placebo-controlled clinical trials, 44 of the 645 patients (7%) who received NUVIGIL discontinued due to an adverse reaction compared to 16 of the 445 (4%) of patients that received placebo. The most frequent reason for discontinuation was headache (1%). Laboratory Abnormalities Clinical chemistry, hematology, and urinalysis parameters were monitored in the studies. Mean plasma levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were found to be higher following administration of NUVIGIL, but not placebo. Few patients, however, had GGT or AP elevations outside of the normal range. No differences were apparent in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, or total bilirubin, although there were rare cases of isolated elevations of AST and/or ALT. A single case of mild pancytopenia was observed after 35 days of treatment and resolved with drug discontinuation. A small mean decrease from baseline in serum uric acid compared to placebo was seen in clinical trials. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of NUVIGIL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular: Stroke Gastrointestinal Disorders: Mouth Sores (including mouth blistering and ulceration)
Effects of NUVIGIL on CYP3A4/5 Substrates The clearance of drugs that are substrates for CYP3A4/5 (e.g., steroidal contraceptives, cyclosporine, midazolam, and triazolam) may be increased by NUVIGIL via induction of metabolic enzymes, which results in lower systemic exposure. Dosage adjustment of these drugs should be considered when these drugs are used concomitantly with NUVIGIL [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . The effectiveness of steroidal contraceptives may be reduced when used with NUVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of therapy. Alternative or concomitant methods of contraception are recommended for patients taking steroidal contraceptives (e.g., ethinyl estradiol) when treated concomitantly with NUVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of NUVIGIL treatment. Blood levels of cyclosporine may be reduced when used with NUVIGIL. Monitoring of circulating cyclosporine concentrations and appropriate dosage adjustment for cyclosporine should be considered when used concomitantly with NUVIGIL. Effects of NUVIGIL on CYP2C19 Substrates Elimination of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C19 (e.g., phenytoin, diazepam, propranolol, omeprazole, and clomipramine) may be prolonged by NUVIGIL via inhibition of metabolic enzymes, with resultant higher systemic exposure. Dose reduction of these drugs may be required when these drugs are used concomitantly with NUVIGIL. Warfarin More frequent monitoring of prothrombin times/INR should be considered whenever NUVIGIL is coadministered with warfarin [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors Caution should be used when concomitantly administering MAO inhibitors and NUVIGIL. Steroidal contraceptives (e.g., ethinyl estradiol): use alternative or concomitant methods of contraception while taking NUVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of NUVIGIL treatment. (7) Cyclosporine: blood concentrations of cyclosporine may be reduced. (7) CYP2C19 substrates, such as omeprazole, phenytoin, and diazepam: exposure of these medications may be increased. (7)
Use In Specific Populations
Pregnancy: based on animal data, may cause fetal harm. (8.1) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to NUVIGIL during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register pregnant patients, or pregnant women may enroll themselves in the registry by calling 1-866-404-4106. Risk Summary Limited available data on armodafinil use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Intrauterine growth restriction and spontaneous abortion have been reported in association with armodafinil and modafinil. Although the pharmacology of armodafinil is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines, armodafinil shares some pharmacologic properties with this class [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Some sympathomimetics have been associated with intrauterine growth restriction and spontaneous abortions. In animal reproduction studies of armodafinil (R-modafinil) and modafinil (a mixture of R- and S-modafinil) conducted in pregnant rats (armodafinil, modafinil) and rabbits (modafinil) during organogenesis, evidence of developmental toxicity (increased embryofetal and offspring mortality, decreased fetal growth) was observed at clinically relevant plasma exposures. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defects, loss, or other adverse outcomes. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Oral administration of armodafinil (60, 200, or 600 mg/kg/day) to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis resulted in decreased fetal body weight and increased incidences of fetal variations indicative of growth delay at the highest dose, which was also maternally toxic. The highest no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity in rat (200 mg/kg/day) was associated with a plasma armodafinil exposure (AUC) less than that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of NUVIGIL (250 mg/day). Modafinil (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) administered orally to pregnant rats throughout organogenesis produced an increase in resorptions and an increased incidence of fetal variations at the highest dose tested. The higher no-effect dose for embryofetal developmental toxicity (100 mg/kg/day) was associated with a plasma armodafinil AUC less than that in humans at the MRHDof NUVIGIL. However, in a subsequent rat study of up to 480 mg/kg/day of modafinil, no adverse effects on embryofetal development were observed. In a study in which modafinil (45, 90, or 180 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis, embryofetal death was increased at the highest dose. The highest no-effect dose for developmental toxicity (100 mg/kg/day) was associated with a plasma armodafinil AUC less than that in humans at the MRHD of NUVIGIL. Modafinil administration to rats throughout gestation and lactation at oral doses of up to 200 mg/kg/day resulted in decreased viability in the offspring at doses greater than 20 mg/kg/day, a dose resulting in a plasma armodafinil AUC less than that in humans at the MRHD of NUVIGIL. No effects on postnatal developmental and neurobehavioral parameters were observed in surviving offspring. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of armodafinil or its metabolites in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effect of this drug on milk production. Modafinil was present in rat milk when animals were dosed during the lactation period. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for armodafinil and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from armodafinil or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential The effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives may be reduced when used with NUVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of therapy. Advise women who are using a hormonal method of contraception to use an additional barrier method or an alternative non-hormonal method of contraception during treatment with NUVIGIL and for one month after discontinuation of NUVIGIL treatment [see Drug Interactions (7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Serious rash has been seen in pediatric patients receiving modafinil [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] . 8.5 Geriatric Use In elderly patients, elimination of armodafinil and its metabolites may be reduced as a consequence of aging. Therefore, consideration should be given to the use of lower doses and close monitoring in this population [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment The dosage of NUVIGIL should be reduced in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].