This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Novolog Mix 70-30 safely and effectively. Before taking Novolog Mix 70-30 please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Novolog Mix 70-30.
Indications And Usage
NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is a mixture of insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart indicated to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. Limitations of Use: •NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. •The proportions of rapid-acting and long-acting insulins in NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 are fixed and do not allow for basal versus prandial dose adjustments. NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is a mixture of insulin aspart protamine, an intermediate-acting human insulin analog, and insulin aspart, a rapid-acting human insulin analog, indicated to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. Limitations of Use: •Not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. •The proportions of rapid-acting and long-acting insulins are fixed and do not allow for basal versus prandial dose adjustments (1).
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is 100 units per mL (U-100), 70% insulin aspart protamine and 30% insulin aspart, is available as a white and cloudy injectable suspension: •10 mL multiple-dose vial •3 mL single-patient-use NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 FlexPen Injectable suspension: NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is 100 units per mL (U-100), 70% insulin aspart protamine and 30% insulin aspart, is available as: (3) •10 mL multiple-dose vial •3 mL single-patient-use NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 FlexPen
NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is contraindicated •During episodes of hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] •In patients with hypersensitivity to NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 or one of its excipients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Do not use during episodes of hypoglycemia (4). •Do not use in patients with hypersensitivity to NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 or one of its excipients (4).
Warning and Cautions
•Never share a NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 FlexPen between patients, even if the needle is changed (5.1). • Hyper- or hypoglycemia with changes in insulin regimen: Carry out under close medical supervision and increase frequency of blood glucose monitoring (5.2). • Hypoglycemia: May be life-threatening. Increase frequency of glucose monitoring with changes to: insulin dosage, co-administered glucose lowering medications, meal pattern, physical activity; and in patients with renal or hepatic impairments and hypoglycemia unawareness (5.3). • Medication Errors: Accidental mix-ups between insulin products can occur. Instruct patients to check insulin labels before injection (5.4). • Hypersensitivity reactions: Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, may occur. Discontinue NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, treat, and monitor, if indicated (5.5). • Hypokalemia: May be life-threatening. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk of hypokalemia and treat if indicated (5.6). • Fluid retention and heart failure with concomitant use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs): Observe for signs and symptoms of heart failure; consider dosage reduction or discontinuation if heart failure occurs (5.7). 5.1 Never Share NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 FlexPen Between Patients NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 FlexPen should never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed. Patients using NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 vials must never share needles or syringes with another person. Sharing poses a risk for transmission of blood-borne pathogens. 5.2 Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia with Changes in Insulin Regimen Changes in insulin strength, manufacturer, type, or method of administration may affect glycemic control and predispose to hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] or hyperglycemia. These changes should be made cautiously and only under close medical supervision, and the frequency of blood glucose monitoring should be increased. For patients with type 2 diabetes, dosage adjustments of concomitant anti-diabetic products may be needed. 5.3 Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect of all insulin therapies, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. Severe hypoglycemia can cause seizures, may lead to unconsciousness, may be life threatening or cause death. Hypoglycemia can impair concentration ability and reaction time; this may place an individual and others at risk in situations where these abilities are important (e.g. driving or operating other machinery). Hypoglycemia can happen suddenly and symptoms may differ in each individual and change over time in the same individual. Symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia may be less pronounced in patients with longstanding diabetes in patients with diabetic nerve disease, in patients using medications that block the sympathetic nervous system (e.g., beta-blockers) [see Drug Interactions (7)] , or in patients who experience recurrent hypoglycemia. Risk Factors for Hypoglycemia The risk of hypoglycemia after an injection is related to the duration of action of the insulin and, in general, is highest when the glucose lowering effect of the insulin is maximal. As with all insulin preparations, the glucose lowering effect time course of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 may vary in different individuals or at different times in the same individual and depends on many conditions, including the area of injection as well as the injection site blood supply and temperature [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)] . Other factors which may increase the risk of hypoglycemia include changes in meal pattern (e.g., macronutrient content or timing of meals), changes in level of physical activity, or changes to co-administered medication [see Drug Interactions (7)] . Patients with renal or hepatic impairment may be at higher risk of hypoglycemia [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)]. Risk Mitigation Strategies for Hypoglycemia Patients and caregivers must be educated to recognize and manage hypoglycemia. Self-monitoring of blood glucose plays an essential role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia; increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended. In patients at higher risk for hypoglycemia and patients who have reduced symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia, increased frequency of blood glucose monitoring is recommended. 5.4 Hypoglycemia Due to Medication Errors Accidental mix-ups between NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 and other insulin products have been reported. To avoid medication errors between NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 and other insulins, instruct patients to always check the insulin label before each injection. 5.5 Hypersensitivity and Allergic Reactions Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergy, including anaphylaxis, can occur with insulin products, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue NOVOLOG MIX 70/30; treat per standard of care and monitor until symptoms and signs resolve [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is contraindicated in patients who have had hypersensitivity reactions to insulin aspart or one of the excipients [see Contraindications (4)]. 5.6 Hypokalemia All insulin products, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, can cause a shift in potassium from the extracellular to intracellular space, possibly leading to hypokalemia. Untreated hypokalemia may cause respiratory paralysis, ventricular arrhythmia, and death. Monitor potassium levels in patients at risk for hypokalemia if indicated (e.g., patients using potassium-lowering medications, patients taking medications sensitive to serum potassium concentration). 5.7 Fluid Retention and Heart Failure with Concomitant Use of PPAR-gamma Agonists Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists, can cause dose-related fluid retention, particularly when used in combination with insulin. Fluid retention may lead to or exacerbate heart failure. Patients treated with insulin, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, and a PPAR-gamma agonist should be observed for signs and symptoms of heart failure. If heart failure develops, it should be managed according to current standards of care, and discontinuation or dose reduction of the PPAR-gamma agonist must be considered.
The following adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere: •Hypoglycemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] •Hypersensitivity and allergic reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] •Hypokalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Adverse reactions observed with insulin therapy include hypoglycemia, allergic reactions, local injection site reactions, lipodystrophy, rash and pruritus (6). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Novo Nordisk Inc. at 1-800-727-6500 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Clinical trials are conducted under widely varying designs, therefore, the adverse reaction rates reported in one clinical trial may not be easily compared to those rates reported in another clinical trial, and may not reflect the rates actually observed in clinical practice. The data in Table 1 reflect the exposure of 55 patients with type 1 diabetes to NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 with a mean exposure duration of three months. The mean age was 43.2 years. Sixty-four percent were male and 100% were Caucasian. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.1 kg/m2. The mean duration of diabetes was 14.9 years. The data in Table 2 reflect the exposure of 85 patients with type 2 diabetes to NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 with a mean exposure duration of three months. The mean age was 62.7 years. Fifty-four percent were male and 100% were Caucasian. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.1 kg/m2. The mean duration of diabetes was 15.0 years. Common adverse reactions were defined as events occurring in ≥5%, excluding hypoglycemia, of the population studied. Common adverse events occurring at the same rate or greater for NOVOLOG MIX 70/30-treated subjects than on comparator-treated subjects during clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus (other than hypoglycemia) are listed in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively. The trial was a three-month, open-label trial in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes who were treated twice daily (before breakfast and before supper) with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. Table 1: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥ 5% of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Adult Patients treated with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 and at the same rate or greater on NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 than on comparator NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 (N=55) Novolin 70/30 (N=49) Preferred Term N % N % Hypoglycemia 38 69 37 76 Headache 19 35 6 12 Influenza-like symptoms 7 13 1 2 Dyspepsia 5 9 3 6 Back pain 4 7 2 4 Diarrhea 4 7 3 6 Pharyngitis 4 7 1 2 Rhinitis 3 5 6 12 Skeletal pain 3 5 2 4 Upper respiratory tract infection 3 5 1 2 Table 2: Adverse reactions Occurring in ≥ 5% of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Adult Patients treated with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 and at the same rate or greater on NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 than on comparator NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 (N=85) Novolin 70/30 (N=102) Preferred Term N % N % Hypoglycemia 40 47 51 50 Upper respiratory tract infection 10 12 6 6 Headache 8 9 8 8 Diarrhea 7 8 2 2 Neuropathy 7 8 2 2 Pharyngitis 5 6 4 4 Abdominal pain 4 5 0 0 Rhinitis 4 5 2 2 Severe Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the most commonly observed adverse reaction in patients using insulin, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. The rates of reported hypoglycemia depend on the definition of hypoglycemia used, diabetes type, insulin dose, intensity of glucose control, background therapies, and other intrinsic and extrinsic patient factors. For these reasons, comparing rates of hypoglycemia in clinical trials for NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 with the incidence of hypoglycemia for other products may be misleading and also, may not be representative of hypoglycemia rates that will occur in clinical practice. Severe hypoglycemia requiring the assistance of another person and/or parenteral glucose infusion or glucagon administration has been observed in clinical trials with insulin, including trials with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in adult patients receiving subcutaneous NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 was 16% and 4% for type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients respectively at 12 weeks [see Clinical Studies (14)] . Allergic Reactions Patients have experienced reactions such as erythema, edema or pruritus at the site of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 injection. These reactions usually resolve in a few days to a few weeks, but in some occasions, have required discontinuation of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. Severe cases of generalized allergy (anaphylaxis) have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. Insulin initiation and glucose control intensification Intensification or rapid improvement in glucose control has been associated with transitory, reversible ophthalmologic refraction disorder, worsening of diabetic retinopathy, and acute painful peripheral neuropathy. However, long-term glycemic control decreases the risk of diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy. Lipodystrophy Long-term use of insulin, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, can cause lipodystrophy at the site of repeated insulin injections. Lipodystrophy includes lipohypertrophy (thickening of adipose tissue) and lipoatrophy (thinning of adipose tissue), and may affect insulin absorption [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] . Weight gain Weight gain can occur with some insulin therapies, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, and has been attributed to the anabolic effects of insulin and the decrease in glycosuria. Peripheral Edema Insulin products, including NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, may cause sodium retention and edema, particularly if previously poor metabolic control is improved by intensified insulin therapy. 6.2 Immunogenicity As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. The detection of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay may be influenced by several factors including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 in the studies described below with the incidence of antibodies in other studies or to other products may be misleading. In a 3-month study with an extension in adult subjects with type 2 diabetes, 100% of patients who received NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 were positive for anti-insulin antibodies (AIA) at least once during the first 12 months of the study including 91.4% that were positive at baseline. A total of 91.4% of patients who received NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 were positive for anti-drug antibodies (ADA) at least once during the first 12 months of the study, including 62.1% that were positive at baseline. In a phase 3 type 2 diabetes clinical trial of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, initial increase in titers of antibodies to insulin followed by a decrease approaching to baseline values was observed in NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 and Novolin 70/30 treatment groups with similar incidences. These antibodies did not cause deterioration in glycemic control or necessitate increases in insulin dose. 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30. Because these adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Medication errors in which other insulins have been accidentally substituted for NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] .
Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 Drugs that May Increase the Risk of Hypoglycemia Drugs: Antidiabetic agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pentoxifylline, pramlintide, salicylates, somatostatin analog (e.g., octreotide), and sulfonamide antibiotics Intervention: Dose adjustment and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is co-administered with these drugs. Drugs that May Decrease the Blood Glucose Lowering Effect of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 Drugs: Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., olanzapine and clozapine), corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, estrogens, glucagon, isoniazid, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), and thyroid hormones. Intervention: Dose adjustment and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is co-administered with these drugs. Drugs that May Increase or Decrease the Blood Glucose Lowering Effect of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 Drugs: Alcohol, beta-blockers, clonidine, and lithium salts. Pentamidine may cause hypoglycemia, which may sometimes be followed by hyperglycemia. Intervention: Dose adjustment and increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is co-administered with these drugs. Drugs that May Blunt Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycemia Drugs: Beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine Intervention: Increased frequency of glucose monitoring may be required when NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 is co-administered with these drugs. • Drugs that may increase the risk of hypoglycemia: antidiabetic agents, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blocking agents, disopyramide, fibrates, fluoxetine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, pentoxifylline, pramlintide, propoxyphene, salicylates, somatostatin analog (e.g., octreotide), and sulfonamide antibiotics (7). • Drugs that may decrease the blood glucose lowering effect: atypical antipsychotics, corticosteroids, danazol, diuretics, estrogens, glucagon, isoniazid, niacin, oral contraceptives, phenothiazines, progestogens (e.g., in oral contraceptives), protease inhibitors, somatropin, sympathomimetic agents (e.g., albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), and thyroid hormones (7). • Drugs that may increase or decrease the blood glucose lowering effect: alcohol, beta-blockers, clonidine, lithium salts, and pentamidine (7). •Drugs that may blunt the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia: beta-blockers, clonidine, guanethidine, and reserpine (7).
Use In Specific Populations
8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no available data with NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Available information from published randomized controlled trials with insulin aspart use during the second trimester of pregnancy have not reported an association with insulin aspart and major birth defects or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. In animal reproduction studies, administration of subcutaneous insulin aspart to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis did not cause adverse developmental effects at exposures 8-times and equal to the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day, respectively. Pre- and post-implantation losses and visceral/skeletal abnormalities were seen at higher exposures, which are considered secondary to maternal hypoglycemia. These effects were similar to those observed in rats administered regular human insulin [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a HbA1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a HbA1c >10%. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo-Fetal Risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Human Data Published data from 5 randomized controlled trials of 441 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus treated with insulin aspart during the late 2nd trimester of pregnancy did not identify an association of insulin aspart with major birth defects or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations, including a variable duration of treatment and small size of the majority of the trials. Animal Data Fertility, embryo-fetal and pre-and postnatal development studies have been performed with insulin aspart and regular human insulin in rats and rabbits. In a combined fertility and embryo-fetal development study in rats, insulin aspart was administered before mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Further, in a pre- and postnatal development study insulin aspart was given throughout pregnancy and during lactation to rats. In an embryo-fetal development study insulin aspart was given to female rabbits during organogenesis. The effects of insulin aspart did not differ from those observed with subcutaneous regular human insulin. Insulin aspart, like human insulin, caused pre- and post-implantation losses and visceral/skeletal abnormalities in rats at a dose of 200 units/kg/day (approximately 32 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day, based on human exposure equivalents) and in rabbits at a dose of 10 units/kg/day (approximately three times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day, based on human exposure equivalents). No significant effects were observed in rats at a dose of 50 units/kg/day and in rabbits at a dose of 3 units/kg/day. These doses are approximately 8 times the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day for rats and equal to the human subcutaneous dose of 1 unit/kg/day for rabbits, based on human exposure equivalents. The effects are considered secondary to maternal hypoglycemia. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no data on the presence of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effect on milk production. One small published study reported that exogenous insulin, including insulin aspart, was present in human milk. However, there is insufficient information to determine the effects of insulin aspart on the breastfed infant. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from NOVOLOG MIX 70/30, or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 have not been established in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger patients. In elderly patients with diabetes, the initial dosing, dose increments should be conservative to avoid hypoglycemic reactions. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly. 8.6 Renal Impairment The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 has not been studied. Some studies with human insulin have shown increased circulating levels of insulin in patients with renal failure. Patients with renal impairment may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia and may require more frequent NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 dose adjustment and more frequent blood glucose monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 has not been studied. Patients with hepatic impairment may be at increased risk of hypoglycemia and may require more frequent NOVOLOG MIX 70/30 dose adjustment and more frequent blood glucose monitoring [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].