This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Metformin safely and effectively. Before taking Metformin please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Metformin.
Indications And Usage
INDICATIONS & USAGE Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP are indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP are contraindicated in patients with: 1. Renal disease or renal dysfunction (e.g., as suggested by serum creatinine levels ≥1.5 mg/dL [males], ≥1.4 mg/dL [females] or abnormal creatinine clearance) which may also result from conditions such as cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, and septicemia (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS). 2. Known hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride 3. Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, with or without coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin. Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP should be temporarily discontinued in patients undergoing radiologic studies involving intravascular administration of iodinated contrast materials, because use of such products may result in acute alteration of renal function. (See also PRECAUTIONS.)
In a US double-blind clinical study of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP in patients with type 2 diabetes, a total of 141 patients received Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP therapy (up to 2550 mg per day) and 145 patients received placebo. Adverse reactions reported in greater than 5% of the Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP patients, and that were more common in Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP- than placebo-treated patients, are listed in Table 9. Table 9: Most Common Adverse Reactions (>5.0 Percent) in a Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets Monotherapy* Adverse Reaction Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets Monotherapy (n=141) Placebo (n=145) % of Patients Diarrhea 53.2 11.7 Nausea/Vomiting 25.5 8.3 Flatulence 12.1 5.5 Asthenia 9.2 5.5 Indigestion 7.1 4.1 Abdominal Discomfort 6.4 4.8 Headache 5.7 4.8 * Reactions that were more common in metformin hydrochloride tablets than placebo-treated patients. Diarrhea led to discontinuation of study medication in 6% of patients treated with Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP. Additionally, the following adverse reactions were reported in ≥1.0 to ≤5.0% of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP patients and were more commonly reported with Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP than placebo: abnormal stools, hypoglycemia, myalgia, lightheaded, dyspnea, nail disorder, rash, sweating increased, taste disorder, chest discomfort, chills, flu syndrome, flushing, palpitation. Pediatric Patients In clinical trials with Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes, the profile of adverse reactions was similar to that observed in adults.
(Clinical Evaluation of Drug Interactions Conducted with Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP) Glyburide—In a single-dose interaction study in type 2 diabetes patients, coadministration of metformin and glyburide did not result in any changes in either metformin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Decreases in glyburide AUC and Cmax were observed, but were highly variable. The single-dose nature of this study and the lack of correlation between glyburide blood levels and pharmacodynamic effects, makes the clinical significance of this interaction uncertain (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Concomitant Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP and Oral Sulfonylurea Therapy in Adult Patients). Furosemide—A single-dose, metformin-furosemide drug interaction study in healthy subjects demonstrated that pharmacokinetic parameters of both compounds were affected by coadministration. Furosemide increased the metformin plasma and blood Cmax by 22% and blood AUC by 15%, without any significant change in metformin renal clearance. When administered with metformin, the Cmax and AUC of furosemide were 31% and 12% smaller, respectively, than when administered alone, and the terminal half-life was decreased by 32%, without any significant change in furosemide renal clearance. No information is available about the interaction of metformin and furosemide when coadministered chronically. Nifedipine—A single-dose, metformin-nifedipine drug interaction study in normal healthy volunteers demonstrated that coadministration of nifedipine increased plasma metformin Cmax and AUC by 20% and 9%, respectively, and increased the amount excreted in the urine. Tmax and half-life were unaffected. Nifedipine appears to enhance the absorption of metformin. Metformin had minimal effects on nifedipine. Cationic drugs—Cationic drugs (e.g., amiloride, digoxin, morphine, procainamide, quinidine, quinine, ranitidine, triamterene, trimethoprim, or vancomycin) that are eliminated by renal tubular secretion theoretically have the potential for interaction with metformin by competing for common renal tubular transport systems. Such interaction between metformin and oral cimetidine has been observed in normal healthy volunteers in both single- and multiple-dose, metformin-cimetidine drug interaction studies, with a 60% increase in peak metformin plasma and whole blood concentrations and a 40% increase in plasma and whole blood metformin AUC. There was no change in elimination half-life in the single-dose study. Metformin had no effect on cimetidine pharmacokinetics. Although such interactions remain theoretical (except for cimetidine), careful patient monitoring and dose adjustment of Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP and/or the interfering drug is recommended in patients who are taking cationic medications that are excreted via the proximal renal tubular secretory system. Other—Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blocking drugs, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP, the patient should be closely observed for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets USP, the patient should be observed closely for hypoglycemia. In healthy volunteers, the pharmacokinetics of metformin and propranolol, and metformin and ibuprofen were not affected when coadministered in single-dose interaction studies. Metformin is negligibly bound to plasma proteins and is, therefore, less likely to interact with highly protein-bound drugs such as salicylates, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, and probenecid, as compared to the sulfonylureas, which are extensively bound to serum proteins.