This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Januvia safely and effectively. Before taking Januvia please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Januvia.

Recent Changes

Indications and Usage (1)12/2020
Dosage and Administration (2.2)12/2020
Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.4) 12/2020
Warnings and Precautions (5.8) removed 12/2020

Indications And Usage

JANUVIA ® is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JANUVIA is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. ( 1 ) Limitations of Use: JANUVIA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes ( 1 ) JANUVIA has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. ( 1 , 5.1 ) Limitations of Use JANUVIA should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes. JANUVIA has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUVIA. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1) .]

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Dosage And Administration

Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Renal Impairment (2.2)
eGFR greater than or equal to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 to less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (including patients with end stage renal disease [ESRD] on dialysis)
50 mg once daily25 mg once daily

Dosage Forms And Strengths

100 mg tablets are beige, round, film-coated tablets with "277" on one side. 50 mg tablets are light beige, round, film-coated tablets with "112" on one side. 25 mg tablets are pink, round, film-coated tablets with "221" on one side. Tablets: 100 mg, 50 mg, and 25 mg ( 3 )

Contraindications

History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ; Adverse Reactions (6.2) .] History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema ( 5.5 , 6.2 )

Warning and Cautions

Pancreatitis: There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue JANUVIA. ( 5.1 ) Heart failure : Heart failure has been observed with two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. Consider risks and benefits of JANUVIA in patients who have known risk factors for heart failure. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms. ( 5.2 ) Acute Renal Failure: Has been reported postmarketing, sometimes requiring dialysis. Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating JANUVIA and periodically thereafter. ( 5.3 ) Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin or Insulin Secretagogues: Increased risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with insulin and/or an insulin secretagogue. Lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required. ( 5.4 , 7.1 ) Hypersensitivity Reactions: There have been postmarketing reports of serious allergic and hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Promptly stop JANUVIA, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment. ( 5.5 , 6.2 ) Severe and Disabling Arthralgia: Has been reported in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Consider as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. ( 5.6 ) Bullous Pemphigoid: There have been postmarketing reports requiring hospitalization in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, discontinue JANUVIA. ( 5.7 ) 5.1 Pancreatitis There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking JANUVIA. After initiation of JANUVIA, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, JANUVIA should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUVIA. 5.2 Heart Failure An association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment and heart failure has been observed in cardiovascular outcomes trials for two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. These trials evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Consider the risks and benefits of JANUVIA prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of JANUVIA. 5.3 Acute Renal Failure There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. A subset of these reports involved patients with renal impairment, some of whom were prescribed inappropriate doses of sitagliptin. A return to baseline levels of renal impairment has been observed with supportive treatment and discontinuation of potentially causative agents. Consideration can be given to cautiously reinitiating JANUVIA if another etiology is deemed likely to have precipitated the acute worsening of renal function. Assessment of renal function is recommended prior to initiating JANUVIA and periodically thereafter. A dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment and in patients with ESRD requiring hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. [See Dosage and Administration (2.2) ; Use in Specific Populations (8.6) .] 5.4 Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin or Insulin Secretagogues When JANUVIA was used in combination with insulin or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylurea), medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin. [See Adverse Reactions (6.1) .] Therefore, a lower dose of sulfonylurea or insulin may be required to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. [See Drug Interactions (7.1) .] 5.5 Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with JANUVIA, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JANUVIA, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2) .] Angioedema has also been reported with other DPP-4 inhibitors. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema with another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JANUVIA. 5.6 Severe and Disabling Arthralgia There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. 5.7 Bullous Pemphigoid Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving JANUVIA. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, JANUVIA should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Adverse Reactions

The following adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Heart Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Acute Renal Failure [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use with Insulin or Insulin Secretagogues [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Severe and Disabling Arthralgia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] Bullous Pemphigoid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] Adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo are: upper respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngitis and headache. In the add-on to sulfonylurea and add-on to insulin studies, hypoglycemia was also more commonly reported in patients treated with JANUVIA compared to placebo. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. In controlled clinical studies as both monotherapy and combination therapy with metformin, pioglitazone, or rosiglitazone and metformin, the overall incidence of adverse reactions, hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions with JANUVIA were similar to placebo. In combination with glimepiride, with or without metformin, the overall incidence of clinical adverse reactions with JANUVIA was higher than with placebo, in part related to a higher incidence of hypoglycemia (see Table 3); the incidence of discontinuation due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to placebo. Two placebo-controlled monotherapy studies, one of 18- and one of 24-week duration, included patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg daily, JANUVIA 200 mg daily, and placebo. Five placebo-controlled add-on combination therapy studies were also conducted: one with metformin; one with pioglitazone; one with metformin and rosiglitazone; one with glimepiride (with or without metformin); and one with insulin (with or without metformin). In these trials, patients with inadequate glycemic control on a stable dose of the background therapy were randomized to add-on therapy with JANUVIA 100 mg daily or placebo. The adverse reactions, excluding hypoglycemia, reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg daily and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo, are shown in Table 1 for the clinical trials of at least 18 weeks duration. Incidences of hypoglycemia are shown in Table 3. Table 1: Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of JANUVIA Monotherapy or Add-on Combination Therapy with Pioglitazone, Metformin + Rosiglitazone, or Glimepiride +/- Metformin: Adverse Reactions (Excluding Hypoglycemia) Reported in ≥5% of Patients and More Commonly than in Patients Given Placebo, Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality Intent-to-treat population Number of Patients (%) Monotherapy (18 or 24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg Placebo N = 443 N = 363 Nasopharyngitis 23 (5.2) 12 (3.3) Combination with Pioglitazone (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Pioglitazone Placebo + Pioglitazone N = 175 N = 178 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 11 (6.3) 6 (3.4) Headache 9 (5.1) 7 (3.9) Combination with Metformin + Rosiglitazone (18 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Metformin + Rosiglitazone Placebo + Metformin + Rosiglitazone N = 181 N = 97 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 10 (5.5) 5 (5.2) Nasopharyngitis 11 (6.1) 4 (4.1) Combination with Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) N = 222 N = 219 Nasopharyngitis 14 (6.3) 10 (4.6) Headache 13 (5.9) 5 (2.3) In the 24-week study of patients receiving JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo. In the 24-week study of patients receiving JANUVIA as add-on therapy to insulin (with or without metformin), there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo, except for hypoglycemia (see Table 3). In the study of JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone (Table 1), through Week 54 the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with JANUVIA and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (JANUVIA, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%). In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the incidence of selected gastrointestinal adverse reactions in patients treated with JANUVIA was as follows: abdominal pain (JANUVIA 100 mg, 2.3%; placebo, 2.1%), nausea (1.4%, 0.6%), and diarrhea (3.0%, 2.3%). In an additional, 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with sitagliptin in combination with metformin, the adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Initial Therapy with Combination of Sitagliptin and Metformin: Adverse Reactions Reported (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Combination Therapy (and Greater than in Patients Receiving Metformin alone, Sitagliptin alone, and Placebo) Intent-to-treat population. Number of Patients (%) Placebo Sitagliptin (JANUVIA) 100 mg QD Metformin HCl 500 or 1000 mg bid Data pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin. Sitagliptin 50 mg bid + Metformin HCl 500 or 1000 mg bid N = 176 N = 179 N = 364 N = 372 Upper Respiratory Infection 9 (5.1) 8 (4.5) 19 (5.2) 23 (6.2) Headache 5 (2.8) 2 (1.1) 14 (3.8) 22 (5.9) In a 24-week study of initial therapy with JANUVIA in combination with pioglitazone, there were no adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given pioglitazone alone. No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in ECG (including in QTc interval) were observed in patients treated with JANUVIA. In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control). Hypoglycemia In the above studies (N=9), adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia. A concurrent blood glucose measurement was not required although most (74%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL. When JANUVIA was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients with at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than in the corresponding placebo group (Table 3). Table 3: Incidence and Rate of Hypoglycemia Adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required; intent-to-treat population. in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies when JANUVIA was used as Add-On Therapy to Glimepiride (with or without Metformin) or Insulin (with or without Metformin), Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality Add-On to Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Glimepiride (+/- Metformin) N = 222 N = 219 Overall (%) 27 (12.2) 4 (1.8) Rate (episodes/patient-year) Based on total number of events (i.e., a single patient may have had multiple events). 0.59 0.24 Severe (%) Severe events of hypoglycemia were defined as those events requiring medical assistance or exhibiting depressed level/loss of consciousness or seizure. 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Add-On to Insulin (+/- Metformin) (24 weeks) JANUVIA 100 mg + Insulin (+/- Metformin) Placebo + Insulin (+/- Metformin) N = 322 N = 319 Overall (%) 50 (15.5) 25 (7.8) Rate (episodes/patient-year) 1.06 0.51 Severe (%) 2 (0.6) 1 (0.3) In a pooled analysis of the two monotherapy studies, the add-on to metformin study, and the add-on to pioglitazone study, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.2% in patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg and 0.9% in patients treated with placebo. In the study of JANUVIA as add-on combination therapy with metformin and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on JANUVIA and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on JANUVIA and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled factorial study of initial therapy with JANUVIA in combination with metformin, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given JANUVIA alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin alone, and 1.6% in patients given JANUVIA in combination with metformin. In the study of JANUVIA as initial therapy with pioglitazone, one patient taking JANUVIA experienced a severe episode of hypoglycemia. There were no severe hypoglycemia episodes reported in other studies except in the study involving coadministration with insulin. In an additional, 30-week placebo-controlled, study of patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin comparing the maintenance of sitagliptin 100 mg versus withdrawal of sitagliptin when initiating basal insulin therapy, the event rate and incidence of documented symptomatic hypoglycemia (blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL) did not differ between the sitagliptin and placebo groups. Laboratory Tests Across clinical studies, the incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with JANUVIA 100 mg compared to patients treated with placebo. A small increase in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed due to an increase in neutrophils. This increase in WBC (of approximately 200 cells/microL vs placebo, in four pooled placebo-controlled clinical studies, with a mean baseline WBC count of approximately 6600 cells/microL) is not considered to be clinically relevant. In a 12-week study of 91 patients with chronic renal insufficiency, 37 patients with moderate renal insufficiency were randomized to JANUVIA 50 mg daily, while 14 patients with the same magnitude of renal impairment were randomized to placebo. Mean (SE) increases in serum creatinine were observed in patients treated with JANUVIA [0.12 mg/dL (0.04)] and in patients treated with placebo [0.07 mg/dL (0.07)]. The clinical significance of this added increase in serum creatinine relative to placebo is not known. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of JANUVIA as monotherapy and/or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis [see Indications and Usage (1) ]; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis); severe and disabling arthralgia ; bullous pemphigoid ; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus; mouth ulceration; stomatitis; rhabdomyolysis.

Drug Interactions

7.1 Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin Coadministration of JANUVIA with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.4) .]

Use In Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to JANUVIA during pregnancy. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to JANUVIA by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999. Risk Summary The limited available data with JANUVIA in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations ]. No adverse developmental effects were observed when sitagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at oral doses up to 30-times and 20-times, respectively, the 100 mg clinical dose, based on AUC [see Data ] . The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a Hemoglobin A1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a Hemoglobin A1c >10%. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Animal Data In embryo-fetal development studies, sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 20) did not adversely affect developmental outcomes at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (30-times the 100 mg clinical dose) and 125 mg/kg (20-times the 100 mg clinical dose), respectively, based on AUC. Higher doses in rats associated with maternal toxicity increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100-times the clinical dose, based on AUC. Placental transfer of sitagliptin was observed in pregnant rats and rabbits. Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 caused no functional or behavioral toxicity in offspring of rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of JANUVIA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Sitagliptin is present in rat milk and therefore possibly present in human milk [see Data ] . The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for JANUVIA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from JANUVIA or from the underlying maternal condition. Data Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of JANUVIA have not been established in pediatric patients. Three 20-week double-blind, placebo-controlled studies each with 34-week extensions were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sitagliptin in 410 pediatric patients aged 10 to 17 years with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes, with or without insulin therapy (HbA1c 6.5-10% for patients not on insulin, HbA1c 7-10% for patients on insulin). At study entry, patients in study 1 were not treated with oral antihyperglycemic agents; patients in studies 2 and 3 were on maximally tolerated metformin therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c after 20 weeks of therapy. The pre-specified primary efficacy analyses included data from study 1 and pooled data from studies 2 and 3, regardless of glycemic rescue or treatment discontinuation. In both efficacy analyses, the effect of treatment with sitagliptin was not significantly different from placebo. In study 1, the mean baseline HbA1c was 7.5%, and 12% of patients were on insulin therapy. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with JANUVIA (N=95) was 0.06% compared to 0.23% in patients treated with placebo (N=95), a difference of -0.17% (95% CI: -0.62, 0.28). In studies 2 and 3, the mean baseline HbA1c was 8.0%, 15% of patients were on insulin and 72% were on metformin HCl doses of greater than 1,500 mg daily. At week 20, the change from baseline in HbA1c in patients treated with sitagliptin (N=107) was -0.23% compared to 0.09% in patients treated with placebo (N=113), a difference of -0.33% (95% CI: -0.70, 0.05). 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in pre-approval clinical safety and efficacy studies of JANUVIA, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Because sitagliptin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and because aging can be associated with reduced renal function, renal function should be assessed more frequently in elderly patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) , Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] . 8.6 Renal Impairment Sitagliptin is excreted by the kidney, and sitagliptin exposure is increased in patients with renal impairment. Lower dosages are recommended in patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 (moderate and severe renal impairment, as well as in ESRD patients requiring dialysis). [See Dosage and Administration (2.2) ; Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) .]