This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Janumet Xr safely and effectively. Before taking Janumet Xr please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Janumet Xr.

Warning

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the full prescribing information [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7), and Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)]. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue JANUMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning . Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Symptoms included malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated blood lactate levels, anion gap acidosis, increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. (5.1) Risk factors include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs, age ≥65 years old, radiological studies with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states, excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information. (5.1) If lactic acidosis is suspected, discontinue JANUMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended. (5.1)

Indications And Usage

JANUMET® XR is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both sitagliptin and metformin extended-release is appropriate. [See Clinical Studies (14).] JANUMET XR is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and biguanide combination product indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both sitagliptin and metformin extended-release is appropriate. (1, 14) Important Limitations of Use: Not for the treatment of type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis. (1) Has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. (1, 5.2) Important Limitations of Use JANUMET XR should not be used in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. JANUMET XR has not been studied in patients with a history of pancreatitis. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUMET XR. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2).]

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Dosage Forms And Strengths

100 mg/1000 mg tablets are blue, bi-convex oval, film-coated tablets with "81" debossed on one side. 50 mg/500 mg tablets are light blue, bi-convex oval, film-coated tablets with "78" debossed on one side. 50 mg/1000 mg tablets are light green, bi-convex oval, film-coated tablets with "80" debossed on one side. JANUMET XR Tablets: 100 mg sitagliptin/1000 mg metformin HCl extended-release, 50 mg sitagliptin/500 mg metformin HCl extended-release, and 50 mg sitagliptin/1000 mg metformin HCl extended-release. (3)

Contraindications

JANUMET XR is contraindicated in patients with: Severe renal impairment (eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Hypersensitivity to metformin hydrochloride. Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis should be treated with insulin. History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction to JANUMET XR or sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.9); Adverse Reactions (6.2). ] Severe renal impairment: eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. (4) Metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis. (4) History of a serious hypersensitivity reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis or angioedema) to JANUMET XR or to one of its components. (5.9, 6.2)

Warning and Cautions

Lactic acidosis: See boxed warning. (5.1) There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis in patients treated with sitagliptin. If pancreatitis is suspected, promptly discontinue JANUMET XR. (5.2) Heart failure has been observed with two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. Consider risks and benefits of JANUMET XR in patients who have known risk factors for heart failure. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms. (5.3) There have been postmarketing reports of acute renal failure in patients treated with sitagliptin, sometimes requiring dialysis. Before initiating JANUMET XR and at least annually thereafter, assess renal function. (5.4) Vitamin B12 deficiency: Metformin may lower Vitamin B12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters annually. (5.5) When used with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or with insulin, a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia. (5.7) There have been postmarketing reports of serious allergic and hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. In such cases, promptly stop JANUMET XR, assess for other potential causes, institute appropriate monitoring and treatment, and initiate alternative treatment for diabetes. (5.9) Severe and disabling arthralgia has been reported in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Consider as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. (5.10) There have been postmarketing reports of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, discontinue JANUMET XR. (5.11) There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with JANUMET XR. (5.12) 5.1 Lactic Acidosis Metformin hydrochloride There have been postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels were generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of JANUMET XR. In JANUMET XR-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery. Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis, and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue JANUMET XR and report these symptoms to their health care provider. For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below: Renal Impairment: The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient's renal function include [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]: Before initiating JANUMET XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). JANUMET XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Discontinue JANUMET XR if the patient's eGFR later falls below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications (4)]. Initiation of JANUMET XR is not recommended in patients with eGFR between 30 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. In patients taking JANUMET XR whose eGFR later falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, assess the benefit and risk of continuing therapy. Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking JANUMET XR. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently. Drug Interactions The concomitant use of JANUMET XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients. Age 65 or Greater The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)]. Radiological Studies with Contrast Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop JANUMET XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart JANUMET XR if renal function is stable. Surgery and Other Procedures Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. JANUMET XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Hypoxic States Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue JANUMET XR. Excessive Alcohol Intake Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving JANUMET XR. Hepatic Impairment Patients with hepatic impairment have developed with cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of JANUMET XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. 5.2 Pancreatitis There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic or necrotizing pancreatitis, in patients taking sitagliptin with or without metformin. After initiation of JANUMET XR, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, JANUMET XR should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using JANUMET XR. 5.3 Heart Failure An association between dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment and heart failure has been observed in cardiovascular outcomes trials for two other members of the DPP-4 inhibitor class. These trials evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Consider the risks and benefits of JANUMET XR prior to initiating treatment in patients at risk for heart failure, such as those with a prior history of heart failure and a history of renal impairment, and observe these patients for signs and symptoms of heart failure during therapy. Advise patients of the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and to immediately report such symptoms. If heart failure develops, evaluate and manage according to current standards of care and consider discontinuation of JANUMET XR. 5.4 Assessment of Renal Function Metformin and sitagliptin are substantially excreted by the kidney. Metformin hydrochloride JANUMET XR is contraindicated in patients with severe renal impairment [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Sitagliptin There have been postmarketing reports of worsening renal function in patients taking sitagliptin with or without metformin, including acute renal failure, sometimes requiring dialysis. Before initiation of therapy with JANUMET XR and at least annually thereafter, renal function should be assessed. In patients in whom development of renal dysfunction is anticipated, particularly in elderly patients, renal function should be assessed more frequently and JANUMET XR discontinued if evidence of renal impairment is present. 5.5 Vitamin B12 Levels In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum Vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or Vitamin B12 supplementation. Measurement of hematologic parameters on an annual basis is advised in patients on JANUMET XR and any apparent abnormalities should be appropriately investigated and managed. [See Adverse Reactions (6.1).] Certain individuals (those with inadequate Vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal Vitamin B12 levels. In these patients, routine serum Vitamin B12 measurements at two- to three-year intervals may be useful. 5.6 Change in Clinical Status of Patients with Previously Controlled Type 2 Diabetes A patient with type 2 diabetes previously well controlled on JANUMET XR who develops laboratory abnormalities or clinical illness (especially vague and poorly defined illness) should be evaluated promptly for evidence of ketoacidosis or lactic acidosis. Evaluation should include serum electrolytes and ketones, blood glucose and, if indicated, blood pH, lactate, pyruvate, and metformin levels. If acidosis of either form occurs, JANUMET XR must be stopped immediately and other appropriate corrective measures initiated. 5.7 Use with Medications Known to Cause Hypoglycemia Sitagliptin When sitagliptin was used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, medications known to cause hypoglycemia, the incidence of hypoglycemia was increased over that of placebo used in combination with a sulfonylurea or with insulin [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Therefore, patients also receiving an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may require a lower dose of the insulin secretagogue or insulin to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. Metformin hydrochloride Hypoglycemia does not occur in patients receiving metformin alone under usual circumstances of use, but could occur when caloric intake is deficient, when strenuous exercise is not compensated by caloric supplementation, or during concomitant use with other glucose-lowering agents (such as sulfonylureas and insulin) or ethanol. Elderly, debilitated, or malnourished patients, and those with adrenal or pituitary insufficiency or alcohol intoxication are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemia may be difficult to recognize in the elderly, and in people who are taking β-adrenergic blocking drugs. 5.8 Loss of Control of Blood Glucose When a patient stabilized on any diabetic regimen is exposed to stress such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery, a temporary loss of glycemic control may occur. At such times, it may be necessary to withhold JANUMET XR and temporarily administer insulin. JANUMET XR may be reinstituted after the acute episode is resolved. 5.9 Hypersensitivity Reactions There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with sitagliptin, one of the components of JANUMET XR. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Onset of these reactions occurred within the first 3 months after initiation of treatment with sitagliptin, with some reports occurring after the first dose. If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue JANUMET XR, assess for other potential causes for the event, and institute alternative treatment for diabetes. [See Adverse Reactions (6.2).] Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema to another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with JANUMET XR. 5.10 Severe and Disabling Arthralgia There have been postmarketing reports of severe and disabling arthralgia in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors. The time to onset of symptoms following initiation of drug therapy varied from one day to years. Patients experienced relief of symptoms upon discontinuation of the medication. A subset of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms when restarting the same drug or a different DPP-4 inhibitor. Consider DPP-4 inhibitors as a possible cause for severe joint pain and discontinue drug if appropriate. 5.11 Bullous Pemphigoid Postmarketing cases of bullous pemphigoid requiring hospitalization have been reported with DPP-4 inhibitor use. In reported cases, patients typically recovered with topical or systemic immunosuppressive treatment and discontinuation of the DPP-4 inhibitor. Tell patients to report development of blisters or erosions while receiving JANUMET XR. If bullous pemphigoid is suspected, JANUMET XR should be discontinued and referral to a dermatologist should be considered for diagnosis and appropriate treatment. 5.12 Macrovascular Outcomes There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with JANUMET XR.

Adverse Reactions

The most common adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients simultaneously started on sitagliptin and metformin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache. (6.1) Adverse reactions reported in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin in combination with sulfonylurea and metformin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo in combination with sulfonylurea and metformin were hypoglycemia and headache. (6.1) Hypoglycemia was the only adverse reaction reported in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin in combination with insulin and metformin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo in combination with insulin and metformin. (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., at 1-877-888-4231 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release Coadministration in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise Table 1 summarizes the most common (≥5% of patients) adverse reactions reported (regardless of investigator assessment of causality) in a 24-week placebo-controlled factorial study in which sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release were coadministered to patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise. Table 1: Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release Coadministered to Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise: Adverse Reactions Reported (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in ≥5% of Patients Receiving Combination Therapy (and Greater than in Patients Receiving Placebo) Intent-to-treat population. Number of Patients (%) Placebo Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily Metformin Immediate- Release 500 mg or 1000 mg twice daily Data pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin. Sitagliptin 50 mg twice daily + Metformin Immediate- Release 500 mg or 1000 mg twice daily N = 176 N = 179 N = 364 N = 372 Diarrhea 7 (4.0) 5 (2.8) 28 (7.7) 28 (7.5) Upper Respiratory Tract Infection 9 (5.1) 8 (4.5) 19 (5.2) 23 (6.2) Headache 5 (2.8) 2 (1.1) 14 (3.8) 22 (5.9) Sitagliptin Add-on Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Immediate-Release Alone In a 24-week placebo-controlled trial of sitagliptin 100 mg administered once daily added to a twice daily metformin immediate-release regimen, there were no adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo. Discontinuation of therapy due to clinical adverse reactions was similar to the placebo treatment group (sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release, 1.9%; placebo and metformin immediate-release, 2.5%). Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions The incidences of pre-selected gastrointestinal adverse experiences in patients treated with sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release were similar to those reported for patients treated with metformin immediate-release alone. See Table 2. Table 2: Pre-selected Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) Reported in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release Number of Patients (%) Study of Sitagliptin and Metformin Immediate-Release in Patients Inadequately Controlled on Diet and Exercise Study of Sitagliptin Add-on in Patients Inadequately Controlled on Metformin Immediate-Release Alone Placebo Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily Metformin Immediate-Release 500 mg or 1000 mg twice daily Data pooled for the patients given the lower and higher doses of metformin. Sitagliptin 50 mg bid + Metformin Immediate- Release 500 mg or 1000 mg twice daily Placebo and Metformin Immediate- Release ≥1500 mg daily Sitagliptin 100 mg once daily and Metformin Immediate- Release ≥1500 mg daily N = 176 N = 179 N = 364 N = 372 N = 237 N = 464 Diarrhea 7 (4.0) 5 (2.8) 28 (7.7) 28 (7.5) 6 (2.5) 11 (2.4) Nausea 2 (1.1) 2 (1.1) 20 (5.5) 18 (4.8) 2 (0.8) 6 (1.3) Vomiting 1 (0.6) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.5) 8 (2.2) 2 (0.8) 5 (1.1) Abdominal PainAbdominal discomfort was included in the analysis of abdominal pain in the study of initial therapy. 4 (2.3) 6 (3.4) 14 (3.8) 11 (3.0) 9 (3.8) 10 (2.2) Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Glimepiride In a 24-week placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and glimepiride (sitagliptin, N=116; placebo, N=113), the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: hypoglycemia (Table 3) and headache (6.9%, 2.7%). Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Rosiglitazone In a placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and rosiglitazone (sitagliptin, N=181; placebo, N=97), the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality through Week 18 in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (sitagliptin, 5.5%; placebo, 5.2%) and nasopharyngitis (6.1%, 4.1%). Through Week 54, the adverse reactions reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo were: upper respiratory tract infection (sitagliptin, 15.5%; placebo, 6.2%), nasopharyngitis (11.0%, 9.3%), peripheral edema (8.3%, 5.2%), and headache (5.5%, 4.1%). Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release and Insulin In a 24-week placebo-controlled study of sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release and insulin (sitagliptin, N=229; placebo, N=233), the only adverse reaction reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients treated with sitagliptin and more commonly than in patients treated with placebo was hypoglycemia (Table 3). Hypoglycemia In all (N=5) studies, adverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required although most (77%) reports of hypoglycemia were accompanied by a blood glucose measurement ≤70 mg/dL. When the combination of sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release was coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin, the percentage of patients reporting at least one adverse reaction of hypoglycemia was higher than that observed with placebo and metformin immediate-release coadministered with a sulfonylurea or with insulin (Table 3). Table 3: Incidence and Rate of HypoglycemiaAdverse reactions of hypoglycemia were based on all reports of symptomatic hypoglycemia; a concurrent glucose measurement was not required: Intent-to-treat population. (Regardless of Investigator Assessment of Causality) in Placebo-Controlled Clinical Studies of Sitagliptin in Combination with Metformin Immediate-Release Coadministered with Glimepiride or Insulin Add-On to Glimepiride + Metformin Immediate-Release (24 weeks) Sitagliptin 100 mg + Metformin Immediate-Release + Glimepiride Placebo + Metformin Immediate-Release + Glimepiride N = 116 N = 113 Overall (%) 19 (16.4) 1 (0.9) Rate (episodes/patient-year) Based on total number of events (i.e., a single patient may have had multiple events). 0.82 0.02 Severe (%)Severe events of hypoglycemia were defined as those events requiring medical assistance or exhibiting depressed level/loss of consciousness or seizure. 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Add-On to Insulin + Metformin Immediate-Release (24 weeks) Sitagliptin 100 mg + Metformin Immediate-Release + Insulin Placebo + Metformin Immediate-Release + Insulin N = 229 N = 233 Overall (%) 35 (15.3) 19 (8.2) Rate (episodes/patient-year) 0.98 0.61 Severe (%) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) The overall incidence of reported adverse reactions of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on diet and exercise was 0.6% in patients given placebo, 0.6% in patients given sitagliptin alone, 0.8% in patients given metformin immediate-release alone, and 1.6% in patients given sitagliptin in combination with metformin immediate-release. In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin immediate-release alone, the overall incidence of adverse reactions of hypoglycemia was 1.3% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 2.1% in patients given add-on placebo. In the study of sitagliptin and add-on combination therapy with metformin immediate-release and rosiglitazone, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 2.2% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 0.0% in patients given add-on placebo through Week 18. Through Week 54, the overall incidence of hypoglycemia was 3.9% in patients given add-on sitagliptin and 1.0% in patients given add-on placebo. Vital Signs and Electrocardiograms With the combination of sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release, no clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in electrocardiogram parameters (including the QTc interval) were observed. Pancreatitis In a pooled analysis of 19 double-blind clinical trials that included data from 10,246 patients randomized to receive sitagliptin 100 mg/day (N=5429) or corresponding (active or placebo) control (N=4817), the incidence of acute pancreatitis was 0.1 per 100 patient-years in each group (4 patients with an event in 4708 patient-years for sitagliptin and 4 patients with an event in 3942 patient-years for control). [See Warnings and Precautions (5.2).] Sitagliptin The most common adverse experience in sitagliptin monotherapy reported regardless of investigator assessment of causality in ≥5% of patients and more commonly than in patients given placebo was nasopharyngitis. Metformin Extended-Release In a 24-week clinical trial in which extended-release metformin or placebo was added to glyburide therapy, the most common (>5% and greater than placebo) adverse reactions in the combined treatment group were hypoglycemia (13.7% vs. 4.9%), diarrhea (12.5% vs. 5.6%), and nausea (6.7% vs. 4.2%). Laboratory Tests Sitagliptin The incidence of laboratory adverse reactions was similar in patients treated with sitagliptin and metformin immediate-release (7.6%) compared to patients treated with placebo and metformin (8.7%). In most but not all studies, a small increase in white blood cell count (approximately 200 cells/microL difference in WBC vs. placebo; mean baseline WBC approximately 6600 cells/microL) was observed due to a small increase in neutrophils. This change in laboratory parameters is not considered to be clinically relevant. Metformin hydrochloride In controlled clinical trials of metformin of 29 weeks duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum Vitamin B12 levels, without clinical manifestations, was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, is, however, very rarely associated with anemia and appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or Vitamin B12 supplementation. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.5).] 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of sitagliptin with metformin, sitagliptin, or metformin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, urticaria, cutaneous vasculitis, and exfoliative skin conditions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]; upper respiratory tract infection; hepatic enzyme elevations; acute pancreatitis, including fatal and non-fatal hemorrhagic and necrotizing pancreatitis [see Indications and Usage (1); Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]; worsening renal function, including acute renal failure (sometimes requiring dialysis) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]; severe and disabling arthralgia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)]; bullous pemphigoid [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]; constipation; vomiting; headache; myalgia; pain in extremity; back pain; pruritus; mouth ulceration; stomatitis; cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury; rhabdomyolysis.

Drug Interactions

Drug Interactions The concomitant use of JANUMET XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients.

Use In Specific Populations

Safety and effectiveness of JANUMET XR in children under 18 years have not been established. (8.4) There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. To report drug exposure during pregnancy call 1-800-986-8999. (8.1) Geriatric Use: Assess renal function more frequently. (8.5) Hepatic Impairment: Avoid use in patients with hepatic impairment. (8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to JANUMET XR during pregnancy. Health care providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to JANUMET XR by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-800-986-8999. Risk Summary The limited available data with JANUMET XR in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. No adverse developmental effects were observed when sitagliptin was administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at oral doses up to 30-times and 20-times, respectively, the 100 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. No adverse developmental effects were observed when metformin was administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 2- and 6-times, respectively, a 2000 mg clinical dose, based on body surface area [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6-10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with a Hemoglobin A1c >7% and has been reported to be as high as 20-25% in women with a Hemoglobin A1c >10%. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, still birth, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, still birth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Human Data Published data from post-marketing studies do not report a clear association with metformin and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin is used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups. Animal Data Sitagliptin and Metformin No animal reproduction studies were conducted with the coadministration of sitagliptin and metformin. Sitagliptin In embryo-fetal development studies, sitagliptin administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis (gestation day 6 to 20) did not adversely affect developmental outcomes at oral doses up to 250 mg/kg (30-times the 100 mg clinical dose) and 125 mg/kg (20-times the 100 mg clinical dose), respectively, based on AUC. Higher doses in rats associated with maternal toxicity increased the incidence of rib malformations in offspring at 1000 mg/kg, or approximately 100-times the clinical dose, based on AUC. Placental transfer of sitagliptin was observed in pregnant rats and rabbits. Sitagliptin administered to female rats from gestation day 6 to lactation day 21 caused no functional or behavioral toxicity in offspring of rats at doses up to 1000 mg/kg. Metformin hydrochloride Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effects when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2- and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of JANUMET XR in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data]. There are no reports of adverse effects on breastfed infants exposed to metformin. There is no information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Sitagliptin is present in rat milk and therefore possibly present in human milk [see Data]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for JANUMET XR and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from JANUMET XR or from the underlying maternal condition. Data Sitagliptin Sitagliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats at a milk to plasma ratio of 4:1. Metformin hydrochloride Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of JANUMET XR in pediatric patients under 18 years have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use JANUMET XR Because sitagliptin and metformin are substantially excreted by the kidney, and because aging can be associated with reduced renal function, renal function should be assessed more frequently in elderly patients. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.4); Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).] Sitagliptin Of the total number of subjects (N=3884) in premarketing Phase II and III clinical studies of sitagliptin, 725 patients were 65 years and over, while 61 patients were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between subjects 65 years and over and younger subjects. While this and other reported clinical experience have not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. Metformin hydrochloride Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and young patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy and the higher risk of lactic acidosis. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients. [See Contraindications (4); Warnings and Precautions (5.4); Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).] 8.6 Renal Impairment JANUMET XR The dose of the sitagliptin component should be limited to 50 mg once daily if eGFR falls below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. JANUMET XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment, patients with an eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. [See Dosage and Administration (2.2), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).] Sitagliptin Sitagliptin is excreted by the kidney, and sitagliptin exposure is increased in patients with renal impairment. Lower dosages are recommended in patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (moderate and severe renal impairment, as well as in ESRD patients requiring dialysis). Metformin hydrochloride Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. JANUMET XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.1).]