This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Invokamet safely and effectively. Before taking Invokamet please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Invokamet.

Warning

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS Post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (> 5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] . Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] . Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the full prescribing information [see Dosage and Administration (2.2 , 2.3) , Contraindications (4) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7) , and Use in Specific Populations (8.6 , 8.7) ] . If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] . WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Symptoms included malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated blood lactate levels, anion gap acidosis, increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. ( 5.1 ) Risk factors include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs, age >65 years old, radiological studies with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states, excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information. ( 5.1 ) If lactic acidosis is suspected, discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended. ( 5.1 )

Recent Changes

Boxed Warning, Lower Limb AmputationRemoved 08/2020
Indications and Usage (1)08/2020
Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6)08/2020
Contraindications (4)01/2020
Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4)08/2020
Warnings and Precautions, Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein (5.13)Removed 01/2020

Indications And Usage

INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR are a combination of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride (HCl) indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), doubling of serum creatinine, cardiovascular (CV) death, and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria greater than 300 mg/day. INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR are a combination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and metformin hydrochloride (HCl), a biguanide, indicated: as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ) Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease ( 1 ) Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of end-stage kidney disease, doubling of serum creatinine, cardiovascular death, and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria ( 1 ). Limitations of Use: INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It may increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in these patients ( 1 ) Limitations of Use INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. It may increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in these patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] .

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Dosage And Administration

Table 1: Recommended Dosage
estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)Recommended Dosage
eGFR 60 or greater[See Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
eGFR 45 to less than 60Limit the dose of canagliflozin component to 100 mg daily (two 50 mg tablets).
eGFR 30 to less than 45Assess the benefit risk of continuing INVOKAMET or INVOKAMET XR; limit the dose of canagliflozin component to 100 mg daily (two 50 mg tablets).
eGFR less than 30Contraindicated; discontinue INVOKAMET or INVOKAMET XR [see Contraindications (4)].
On dialysisContraindicated [see Contraindications (4)].

Dosage Forms And Strengths

INVOKAMET (canagliflozin and metformin HCl) tablets are available as follows: Canagliflozin Strength Metformin HCl Strength Color/Shape Tablet Identifiers Embossing appears on both sides of tablet. 50 mg 500 mg white/capsule-shaped CM 155 50 mg 1,000 mg beige/capsule-shaped CM 551 150 mg 500 mg yellow/capsule-shaped CM 215 150 mg 1,000 mg purple/capsule-shaped CM 611 INVOKAMET XR (canagliflozin and metformin HCl) extended-release tablets are available as follows: Canagliflozin Strength Metformin HCl Strength Color/Shape Tablet Identifiers Embossing appears on one side only of tablet. 50 mg 500 mg almost white to light orange/oblong, biconvex CM1 50 mg 1,000 mg pink/oblong, biconvex CM3 150 mg 500 mg orange/oblong, biconvex CM2 150 mg 1,000 mg reddish brown/oblong, biconvex CM4 INVOKAMET tablets: Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin HCl 500 mg Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin HCl 1,000 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin HCl 500 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin HCl 1,000 mg ( 3 ) INVOKAMET XR extended-release tablets: Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin HCl 500 mg Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin HCl 1,000 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin HCl 500 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin HCl 1,000 mg ( 3 )

Contraindications

INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in patients: With severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) or on dialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ] . With acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] . With serious hypersensitivity reaction to canagliflozin or metformin HCl, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) and Adverse Reactions (6) ] . Severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) or on dialysis ( 4 ) Metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis ( 4 , 5.1 ) Serious hypersensitivity reaction to canagliflozin or metformin HCl ( 4 , 5.9 )

Warning and Cautions

Lower Limb Amputation : Consider factors that may increase the risk of amputation before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Monitor patients for infection or ulcers of lower limb and discontinue if these occur ( 5.2 ) Volume Depletion : May result in acute kidney injury. Before initiating, assess and correct volume status in patients with renal impairment, elderly patients, or patients on loop diuretics. Monitor for signs and symptoms during therapy ( 5.3 , 6.1 ) Ketoacidosis : Assess patients who present with signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis for ketoacidosis, regardless of blood glucose level. If suspected, discontinue, evaluate and treat promptly. Before initiating, consider risk factors for ketoacidosis. Patients may require monitoring and temporary discontinuation in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis ( 5.4 ) Urosepsis and pyelonephritis : Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated ( 5.5 ) Hypoglycemia : Consider a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination ( 5.6 ) Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene) : Serious, life-threatening cases have occurred in both females and males. Assess patients presenting with pain or tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, along with fever or malaise. If suspected, institute prompt treatment ( 5.7 ) Genital mycotic infections : Monitor and treat if indicated ( 5.8 ) Hypersensitivity reactions : Discontinue and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve ( 5.9 ) Bone fracture : Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR ( 5.10 ) Vitamin B 12 deficiency : Metformin HCl may lower vitamin B 12 levels. Measure hematological parameters annually and vitamin B 12 at 2- to 3-year intervals and manage any abnormalities ( 5.11 ) 5.1 Lactic Acidosis There have been post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. In INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/min under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery. Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider. For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below: Renal Impairment: The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient's renal function include [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) , Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 [see Contraindications (4) ] . Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently. Drug Interactions: The concomitant use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation (e.g. cationic drugs) [see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients. Age 65 or Greater: The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Radiological Studies with Contrast: Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR if renal function is stable. Surgery and Other Procedures: Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Hypoxic States: Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause pre-renal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Excessive Alcohol Intake: Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Hepatic Impairment: Patients with hepatic impairment have developed metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. 5.2 Lower Limb Amputation An increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with canagliflozin, a component of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, versus placebo was observed in CANVAS (5.9 vs 2.8 events per 1000 patient-years) and CANVAS-R (7.5 vs 4.2 events per 1000 patient-years), two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or were at risk for cardiovascular disease. The risk of lower limb amputations was observed at both the 100 mg and 300 mg once daily dosage regimens. The amputation data for CANVAS and CANVAS-R are shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . Amputations of the toe and midfoot (99 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving canagliflozin in the two trials) were the most frequent; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, were also observed (41 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving canagliflozin in the two trials). Some patients had multiple amputations, some involving both lower limbs. Lower limb infections, gangrene, and diabetic foot ulcers were the most common precipitating medical events leading to the need for an amputation. The risk of amputation was highest in patients with a baseline history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, and neuropathy. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to the need for amputations, such as a history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers. Counsel patients about the importance of routine preventative foot care. Monitor patients receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR for signs and symptoms of infection (including osteomyelitis), new pain or tenderness, sores or ulcers involving the lower limbs, and discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR if these complications occur. 5.3 Volume Depletion Canagliflozin can cause intravascular volume contraction which may sometimes manifest as symptomatic hypotension or acute transient changes in creatinine [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . There have been post-marketing reports of acute kidney injury which are likely related to volume depletion, some requiring hospitalizations and dialysis, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), elderly patients, or patients on loop diuretics may be at increased risk for volume depletion or hypotension. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in patients with one or more of these characteristics, assess and correct volume status. Monitor for signs and symptoms of volume depletion after initiating therapy. 5.4 Ketoacidosis Reports of ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization have been identified in clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including canagliflozin. In placebo-controlled trials of patients with type 1 diabetes, the risk of ketoacidosis was increased in patients who received SGLT2 inhibitors compared to patients who received placebo. The risk of ketoacidosis may be greater with higher doses. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking canagliflozin. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus [see Indications and Usage (1) ] . Patients treated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR who present with signs and symptoms consistent with severe metabolic acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of presenting blood glucose levels, as ketoacidosis associated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR should be discontinued, patient should be evaluated, and prompt treatment should be instituted. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement. In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized and institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for diabetic ketoacidosis (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with dehydration and severe metabolic acidosis and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake, surgery, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g., type 1 diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), and alcohol abuse were identified. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse. For patients who undergo scheduled surgery, consider temporarily discontinuing INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR for at least 3 days prior to surgery [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2 , 12.3) ] . Consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in other clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or post-surgery). Ensure risk factors for ketoacidosis are resolved prior to restarting INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Educate patients on the signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis and instruct patients to discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and seek medical attention immediately if signs and symptoms occur. 5.5 Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis There have been postmarketing reports of serious urinary tract infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases the risk for urinary tract infections. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6) ] . 5.6 Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. 5.7 Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's Gangrene) Reports of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene), a rare but serious and life-threatening necrotizing infection requiring urgent surgical intervention, have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Cases have been reported in both females and males. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death. Patients treated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR presenting with pain or tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, along with fever or malaise, should be assessed for necrotizing fasciitis. If suspected, start treatment immediately with broad-spectrum antibiotics and, if necessary, surgical debridement. Discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, closely monitor blood glucose levels, and provide appropriate alternative therapy for glycemic control. 5.8 Genital Mycotic Infections Canagliflozin increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections and uncircumcised males were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . Monitor and treat appropriately. 5.9 Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis, have been reported with canagliflozin. These reactions generally occurred within hours to days after initiating canagliflozin. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR; treat and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve [see Contraindications (4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1 , 6.2) ] . 5.10 Bone Fracture An increased risk of bone fracture, occurring as early as 12 weeks after treatment initiation, was observed in patients using canagliflozin in the CANVAS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] . Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk prior to initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . 5.11 Vitamin B 12 Levels In metformin HCl clinical trials of 29-week duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B 12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B 12 absorption from the B 12 -intrinsic factor complex, may be associated with anemia but appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin HCl or vitamin B 12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B 12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B 12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters on an annual basis and vitamin B 12 at 2- to 3-year intervals in patients on INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and manage any abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].

Adverse Reactions

The following important adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Lactic Acidosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1 , 5.3) ] Lower Limb Amputation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Volume Depletion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] Ketoacidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's gangrene) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] Genital Mycotic Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ] Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ] Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) ] Vitamin B 12 Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ] Most common adverse reactions associated with canagliflozin (5% or greater incidence): female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infection, and increased urination ( 6.1 ) Most common adverse reactions associated with metformin HCl (5% or greater incidence) are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, asthenia, indigestion, abdominal discomfort, and headache ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-800-526-7736 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Pool of Placebo-Controlled Trials for Glycemic Control Canagliflozin The data in Table 2 is derived from four 26-week placebo-controlled trials where canagliflozin was used as monotherapy in one trial and as add-on therapy in three trials. These data reflect exposure of 1,667 patients to canagliflozin and a mean duration of exposure to canagliflozin of 24 weeks with 1,275 patients exposed to a combination of canagliflozin and metformin HCl. Patients received canagliflozin 100 mg (N=833), canagliflozin 300 mg (N=834) or placebo (N=646) once daily. The mean daily dose of metformin HCl was 2,138 mg (SD 337.3) for the 1,275 patients in the three placebo-controlled metformin HCl add-on trials. The mean age of the population was 56 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty percent (50%) of the population was male and 72% were Caucasian, 12% were Asian, and 5% were Black or African American. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 7.3 years, had a mean HbA 1C of 8.0% and 20% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired (mean eGFR 88 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ). Table 2 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of canagliflozin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on canagliflozin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either canagliflozin 100 mg or canagliflozin 300 mg. Table 2: Adverse Reactions from Pool of Four 26–Week Placebo-Controlled Studies Reported in ≥ 2% of Canagliflozin-Treated Patients The four placebo-controlled trials included one monotherapy trial and three add-on combination trials with metformin HCl, metformin HCl and sulfonylurea, or metformin HCl and pioglitazone. Adverse Reaction Placebo N=646 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=833 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=834 Note: Percentages were weighted by studies. Study weights were proportional to the harmonic mean of the three treatment sample sizes. Urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions: Urinary tract infection, Cystitis, Kidney infection, and Urosepsis. 3.8% 5.9% 4.4% Increased urination Increased urination includes the following adverse reactions: Polyuria, Pollakiuria, Urine output increased, Micturition urgency, and Nocturia. 0.7% 5.1% 4.6% Thirst Thirst includes the following adverse reactions: Thirst, Dry mouth, and Polydipsia. 0.1% 2.8% 2.4% Constipation 0.9% 1.8% 2.4% Nausea 1.6% 2.1% 2.3% N=312 N=425 N=430 Female genital mycotic infections Female genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions: Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Vulvovaginal mycotic infection, Vulvovaginitis, Vaginal infection, Vulvitis, and Genital infection fungal. 2.8% 10.6% 11.6% Vulvovaginal pruritus 0.0% 1.6% 3.2% N=334 N=408 N=404 Male genital mycotic infections Male genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions: Balanitis or Balanoposthitis, Balanitis candida, and Genital infection fungal. 0.7% 4.2% 3.8% Abdominal pain was also more commonly reported in patients taking canagliflozin 100 mg (1.8%), 300 mg (1.7%) than in patients taking placebo (0.8%). Canagliflozin and Metformin HCl The incidence and type of adverse reactions in the three 26-week placebo-controlled metformin HCl tablets add-on trials, representing a majority of data from the four 26-week placebo-controlled trials, was similar to the adverse reactions described in Table 2. There were no additional adverse reactions identified in the pooling of these three placebo-controlled trials that included metformin HCl tablets relative to the four placebo-controlled trials. In a trial with canagliflozin as initial combination therapy with metformin HCl [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ] , an increased incidence of diarrhea was observed in the canagliflozin and metformin HCl combination groups (4.2%) compared to canagliflozin or metformin HCl monotherapy groups (1.7%). Placebo-Controlled Trial in Diabetic Nephropathy The occurrence of adverse reactions for canagliflozin was evaluated in patients participating in CREDENCE, a study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy with albuminuria ˃ 300 mg/day [see Clinical Studies (14.3) ] . These data reflect exposure of 2,201 patients to canagliflozin and a mean duration of exposure to canagliflozin of 137 weeks. The rate of lower limb amputations associated with the use of canagliflozin 100 mg relative to placebo was 12.3 vs 11.2 events per 1000 patient-years, respectively, with 2.6 years mean duration of follow-up. Incidence rates of adjudicated events of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) were 0.21 (0.5%, 12/2,200) and 0.03 (0.1%, 2/2,197) per 100 patient-years of follow-up with canagliflozin 100 mg and placebo, respectively. The incidence of hypotension was 2.8% and 1.5% on canagliflozin 100 mg and placebo, respectively. Pool of Placebo- and Active-Controlled Trials for Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes The occurrence of adverse reactions for canagliflozin was evaluated in patients participating in placebo- and active-controlled trials and in an integrated analysis of two cardiovascular trials, CANVAS and CANVAS-R. The types and frequency of common adverse reactions observed in the pool of eight clinical trials (which reflect an exposure of 6,177 patients to canagliflozin) were consistent with those listed in Table 2. Percentages were weighted by studies. Study weights were proportional to the harmonic mean of the three treatment sample sizes. In this pool, canagliflozin was also associated with the adverse reactions of fatigue (1.8%, 2.2%, and 2.0% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively) and loss of strength or energy (i.e., asthenia) (0.6%, 0.7%, and 1.1% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively). In the pool of eight clinical trials, the incidence rate of pancreatitis (acute or chronic) was 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.1% receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. In the pool of eight clinical trials, hypersensitivity-related adverse reactions (including erythema, rash, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema) was 3.0%, 3.8%, and 4.2% of patients receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Five patients experienced serious adverse reactions of hypersensitivity with canagliflozin, which included 4 patients with urticaria and 1 patient with a diffuse rash and urticaria occurring within hours of exposure to canagliflozin. Among these patients, 2 patients discontinued canagliflozin. One patient with urticaria had recurrence when canagliflozin was re-initiated. Photosensitivity-related adverse reactions (including photosensitivity reaction, polymorphic light eruption, and sunburn) occurred in 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.2% of patients receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Other adverse reactions occurring more frequently on canagliflozin than on comparator were: Lower Limb Amputation An increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with canagliflozin was observed in CANVAS (5.9 vs 2.8 events per 1000 patient-years) and CANVAS-R (7.5 vs 4.2 events per 1000 patient-years), two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or were at risk for cardiovascular disease. Patients in CANVAS and CANVAS-R were followed for an average of 5.7 and 2.1 years, respectively [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] . The amputation data for CANVAS and CANVAS-R are shown in Tables 3 and 4, respectively . Table 3: CANVAS Amputations Placebo N=1441 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=1445 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=1441 Canagliflozin (Pooled) N=2886 Note: Incidence is based on the number of patients with at least one amputation, and not the total number of amputation events. A patient's follow-up is calculated from Day 1 to the first amputation event date. Some patients had more than one amputation. Patients with an amputation, n (%) 22 (1.5) 50 (3.5) 45 (3.1) 95 (3.3) Total amputations 33 83 79 162 Amputation incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) 2.8 6.2 5.5 5.9 Hazard Ratio (95% CI) -- 2.24 (1.36, 3.69) 2.01 (1.20, 3.34) 2.12 (1.34, 3.38) Table 4: CANVAS-R Amputations Placebo N=2903 Canagliflozin 100 mg (with up-titration to 300 mg) N=2904 Note: Incidence is based on the number of patients with at least one amputation, and not the total number of amputation events. A patient's follow-up is calculated from Day 1 to the first amputation event date. Some patients had more than one amputation. Patients with an amputation, n (%) 25 (0.9) 45 (1.5) Total amputations 36 59 Amputation incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) 4.2 7.5 Hazard Ratio (95% CI) -- 1.80 (1.10, 2.93) Renal Cell Carcinoma In the CANVAS trial (mean duration of follow-up of 5.7 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] , the incidence of renal cell carcinoma was 0.15% (2/1331) and 0.29% (8/2716) for placebo and canagliflozin, respectively, excluding patients with less than 6 months of follow-up, less than 90 days of treatment, or a history of renal cell carcinoma. A causal relationship to canagliflozin could not be established due to the limited number of cases. Volume Depletion-Related Adverse Reactions Canagliflozin results in an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to reductions in intravascular volume. In clinical trials for glycemic control, treatment with canagliflozin was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of volume depletion-related adverse reactions (e.g., hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration). An increased incidence was observed in patients on the 300 mg dose. The three factors associated with the largest increase in volume depletion-related adverse reactions in these trials were the use of loop diuretics, moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), and age 75 years and older (Table 5) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5 and 8.6) ] . Table 5: Patients With at Least One Volume Depletion-Related Adverse Reaction (Pooled Results from 8 Clinical Trials for Glycemic Control) Baseline Characteristic Comparator Group Includes placebo and active-comparator groups % Canagliflozin 100 mg % Canagliflozin 300 mg % Overall population 1.5% 2.3% 3.4% 75 years of age and older Patients could have more than 1 of the listed risk factors 2.6% 4.9% 8.7% eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 2.5% 4.7% 8.1% Use of loop diuretic 4.7% 3.2% 8.8% Falls In a pool of nine clinical trials with mean duration of exposure to canagliflozin of 85 weeks, the proportion of patients who experienced falls was 1.3%, 1.5%, and 2.1% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The higher risk of falls for patients treated with canagliflozin was observed within the first few weeks of treatment. Genital Mycotic Infections In the pool of four placebo-controlled clinical trials for glycemic control, female genital mycotic infections (e.g., vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and vulvovaginitis) occurred in 2.8%, 10.6%, and 11.6% of females treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin. Female patients who developed genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin were more likely to experience recurrence and require treatment with oral or topical antifungal agents and anti-microbial agents. In females, discontinuation due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.7% of patients treated with placebo and canagliflozin, respectively. In the pool of four placebo-controlled clinical trials, male genital mycotic infections (e.g., candidal balanitis, balanoposthitis) occurred in 0.7%, 4.2%, and 3.8% of males treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Male genital mycotic infections occurred more commonly in uncircumcised males and in males with a prior history of balanitis or balanoposthitis. Male patients who developed genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin were more likely to experience recurrent infections (22% on canagliflozin versus none on placebo), and require treatment with oral or topical antifungal agents and anti-microbial agents than patients on comparators. In males, discontinuations due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.5% of patients treated with placebo and canagliflozin, respectively. In the pooled analysis of 8 randomized trials evaluating glycemic control, phimosis was reported in 0.3% of uncircumcised male patients treated with canagliflozin and 0.2% required circumcision to treat the phimosis. Hypoglycemia In canagliflozin glycemic control trials, hypoglycemia was defined as any event regardless of symptoms, where biochemical hypoglycemia was documented (any glucose value below or equal to 70 mg/dL). Severe hypoglycemia was defined as an event consistent with hypoglycemia where the patient required the assistance of another person to recover, lost consciousness, or experienced a seizure (regardless of whether biochemical documentation of a low glucose value was obtained). In individual clinical trials of glycemic control [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ] , episodes of hypoglycemia occurred at a higher rate when canagliflozin was co-administered with insulin or sulfonylureas (Table 6). Table 6: Incidence of Hypoglycemia Number of patients experiencing at least one event of hypoglycemia based on either biochemically documented episodes or severe hypoglycemic events in the intent-to-treat population in Randomized Clinical Studies of Glycemic Control Monotherapy (26 weeks) Placebo (N=192) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=195) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=197) Overall [N (%)] 5 (2.6) 7 (3.6) 6 (3.0) In Combination with Metformin HCl (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin HCl (N=183) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin HCl (N=368) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin HCl (N=367) Overall [N (%)] 3 (1.6) 16 (4.3) 17 (4.6) Severe [N (%)] Severe episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as those where the patient required the assistance of another person to recover, lost consciousness, or experienced a seizure (regardless of whether biochemical documentation of a low glucose value was obtained) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) In Combination with Metformin HCl (18 weeks) Phase 2 clinical study with twice daily dosing (50 mg or 150 mg twice daily in combination with metformin HCl) Placebo (N=93) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=93) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=93) Overall [N (%)] 3 (3.2) 4 (4.3) 3 (3.2) In Combination with Metformin HCl + Sulfonylurea (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin HCl + Sulfonylurea (N=156) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin HCl + Sulfonylurea (N=157) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin HCl + Sulfonylurea (N=156) Overall [N (%)] 24 (15.4) 43 (27.4) 47 (30.1) Severe [N (%)] 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 0 In Combination with Metformin HCl + Pioglitazone (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin HCl + Pioglitazone (N=115) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin HCl + Pioglitazone (N=113) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin HCl + Pioglitazone (N=114) Overall [N (%)] 3 (2.6) 3 (2.7) 6 (5.3) In Combination with Insulin (18 weeks) Placebo (N=565) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=566) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=587) Overall [N (%)] 208 (36.8) 279 (49.3) 285 (48.6) Severe [N (%)] 14 (2.5) 10 (1.8) 16 (2.7) In Combination with Insulin and Metformin HCl (18 weeks) Subgroup of patients (N=287) from insulin substudy on canagliflozin in combination with metformin HCl and insulin (with or without other antiglycemic agents) Placebo (N=145) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=139) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=148) Overall [N (%)] 66 (45.5) 58 (41.7) 70 (47.3) Severe [N (%)] 4 (2.8) 1 (0.7) 3 (2.0) Bone Fracture In the CANVAS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2) ] , the incidence rates of all adjudicated bone fracture were 1.09, 1.59, and 1.79 events per 100 patient-years of follow-up to placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The fracture imbalance was observed within the first 26 weeks of therapy and remained through the end of the trial. Fractures were more likely to be low trauma (e.g., fall from no more than standing height), and affect the distal portion of upper and lower extremities. Metformin HCl The most common adverse reactions (5% or greater incidence) due to initiation of metformin HCl are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, asthenia, indigestion, abdominal discomfort, and headache. Long-term treatment with metformin HCl has been associated with a decrease in vitamin B 12 , which may result in clinically significant vitamin B 12 deficiency (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) ] . Laboratory and Imaging Tests Increases in Serum Creatinine and Decreases in eGFR Initiation of canagliflozin causes an increase in serum creatinine and decrease in estimated GFR. In patients with moderate renal impairment, the increase in serum creatinine generally does not exceed 0.2 mg/dL, occurs within the first 6 weeks of starting therapy, and then stabilizes. Increases that do not fit this pattern should prompt further evaluation to exclude the possibility of acute kidney injury [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1) ] . The acute effect on eGFR reverses after treatment discontinuation suggesting acute hemodynamic changes may play a role in the renal function changes observed with canagliflozin. Increases in Serum Potassium In a pooled population of patients (N=723) in glycemic control trials with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ), increases in serum potassium to greater than 5.4 mEq/L and 15% above occurred in 5.3%, 5.0%, and 8.8% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Severe elevations (greater than or equal to 6.5 mEq/L) occurred in 0.4% of patients treated with placebo, no patients treated with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 1.3% of patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg. In these patients, increases in potassium were more commonly seen in those with elevated potassium at baseline. Among patients with moderate renal impairment, approximately 84% were taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. In CREDENCE, no difference in serum potassium, no increase in adverse events of hyperkalemia, and no increase in absolute (> 6.5 mEq/L) or relative (> upper limit of normal and > 15% increase from baseline) increases in serum potassium were observed with canagliflozin 100 mg relative to placebo. Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (non-HDL-C) In the pool of four glycemic control placebo-controlled trials, dose-related increases in LDL-C with canagliflozin were observed. Mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in LDL-C relative to placebo were 4.4 mg/dL (4.5%) and 8.2 mg/dL (8.0%) with canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The mean baseline LDL-C levels were 104 to 110 mg/dL across treatment groups. Dose-related increases in non-HDL-C with canagliflozin were observed. Mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in non-HDL-C relative to placebo were 2.1 mg/dL (1.5%) and 5.1 mg/dL (3.6%) with canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg, respectively. The mean baseline non-HDL-C levels were 140 to 147 mg/dL across treatment groups. Increases in Hemoglobin In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials of glycemic control, mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in hemoglobin were -0.18 g/dL (-1.1%) with placebo, 0.47 g/dL (3.5%) with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 0.51 g/dL (3.8%) with canagliflozin 300 mg. The mean baseline hemoglobin value was approximately 14.1 g/dL across treatment groups. At the end of treatment, 0.8%, 4.0%, and 2.7% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively, had hemoglobin above the upper limit of normal. Decreases in Bone Mineral Density Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a clinical trial of 714 older adults (mean age 64 years). At 2 years, patients randomized to canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg had placebo-corrected declines in BMD at the total hip of 0.9% and 1.2%, respectively, and at the lumbar spine of 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Additionally, placebo-adjusted BMD declines were 0.1% at the femoral neck for both canagliflozin doses and 0.4% at the distal forearm for patients randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg. The placebo-adjusted change at the distal forearm for patients randomized to canagliflozin 100 mg was 0%. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of canagliflozin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Canagliflozin Ketoacidosis Acute Kidney Injury Anaphylaxis, Angioedema Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's gangrene) Metformin HCl Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury

Drug Interactions

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may increase risk of lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring ( 7.1 ) Drugs that reduce metformin clearance (such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) may increase the accumulation of metformin. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use ( 7.1 ) Alcohol : Warn patients against excessive intake ( 7.1 ) UGT inducers (e.g., rifampin): Canagliflozin exposure is reduced. Adjust canagliflozin dose ( 2.5 , 7.2 ) Digoxin : Monitor digoxin levels ( 7.2 ) 7.1 Drug Interactions with Metformin Table 7: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Metformin Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Clinical Impact: Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors frequently cause a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Intervention: Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients. Examples: Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) Drugs That Reduce Metformin Clearance Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Intervention: Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use. Examples: Ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine Alcohol Clinical Impact: Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin HCl on lactate metabolism. Intervention: Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Insulin Secretagogues or Insulin Clinical Impact: Coadministration of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with an insulin secretagogue (e.g., sulfonylurea) or insulin may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Intervention: Patients receiving an insulin secretagogue or insulin may require lower doses of the insulin secretagogue or insulin. Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control Clinical Impact: Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. Intervention: When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, monitor for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, monitor for hypoglycemia. Examples: Thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid. 7.2 Drug Interactions with Canagliflozin Table 8: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Canagliflozin UGT Enzyme Inducers Clinical Impact: May reduce the efficacy of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Intervention: For patients with eGFR 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or greater, if an inducer of UGTs is co-administered with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, increase the total daily dose of canagliflozin to 200 mg in patients currently tolerating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with a total daily dose of canagliflozin 100 mg. The total daily dose of canagliflozin may be increased to 300 mg in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 200 mg and who require additional glycemic control. For patients with eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , if an inducer of UGTs is co-administered with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, increase the total daily dose of canagliflozin to 200 mg in patients currently tolerating canagliflozin 100 mg [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Examples: Rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ritonavir Digoxin Clinical Impact: Canagliflozin increased digoxin exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Intervention: Monitor patients taking INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with concomitant digoxin for a need to adjust dose of digoxin. Drug/Laboratory Test Interference Positive Urine Glucose Test Intervention: Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors as SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control. Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay Intervention: Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy : Advise females of the potential risk to a fetus especially during the second and third trimesters ( 8.1 ) Lactation : Not recommended when breastfeeding ( 8.2 ) Females and Males of Reproductive Potential : Advise premenopausal females of the potential for an unintended pregnancy ( 8.3 ) Geriatrics : Higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume. Assess renal function more frequently ( 5.3 , 6.1 , 8.5 ) Renal impairment : Higher incidence of adverse reactions related to hypotension and renal function ( 2.4 , 5.3 , 8.6 ) Hepatic Impairment : Avoid use in patients with hepatic impairment ( 8.7 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects from canagliflozin, INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Limited data with INVOKAMET, INVOKAMET XR or canagliflozin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. Published studies with metformin HCl use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin HCl and major birth defect or miscarriage risk (see Data ). There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations ). In animal studies, adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilatations that were not reversible were observed in rats when canagliflozin was administered at an exposure 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC during a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy. No adverse developmental effects were observed when metformin HCl was administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 2- and 6-times, respectively, a 2000 mg clinical dose, based on body surface area (see Data ) . The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA 1C >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20–25% in women with a HbA 1C >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Human Data Published data from post-marketing studies have not reported a clear association with metformin HCl and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin HCl was used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any metformin-associated risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups. Animal Data Canagliflozin Canagliflozin dosed directly to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 4, 20, 65, or 100 mg/kg increased kidney weights and dose dependently increased the incidence and severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatation at all doses tested. Exposure at the lowest dose was greater than or equal to 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. These outcomes occurred with drug exposure during periods of renal development in rats that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human renal development. The renal pelvic dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within a 1 month recovery period. In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, canagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities independent of maternal toxicity were observed when canagliflozin was administered at doses up to 100 mg/kg in pregnant rats and 160 mg/kg in pregnant rabbits during embryonic organogenesis or during a study in which maternal rats were dosed from gestation day (GD) 6 through PND 21, yielding exposures up to approximately 19-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. Metformin HCl Metformin HCl did not cause adverse developmental effects when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2- and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m 2 ) for rats and rabbits, respectively. Canagliflozin and Metformin HCl No adverse developmental effects were observed when canagliflozin and metformin HCl were co-administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at exposures up to 11 and 13 times, respectively, the 300 mg and 2000 mg clinical doses of canagliflozin and metformin HCl based on AUC. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of INVOKAMET, INVOKAMET XR or canagliflozin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk (see Data ) . However, there is insufficient information on the effects of metformin HCl on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin HCl on milk production. Canagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats (see Data ) . Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise women that use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended while breastfeeding. Data Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin HCl during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants. Radiolabeled canagliflozin administered to lactating rats on day 13 post-partum was present at a milk/plasma ratio of 1.40, indicating that canagliflozin and its metabolites are transferred into milk at a concentration comparable to that in plasma. Juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed a risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin HCl may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR Because renal function abnormalities can occur after initiating canagliflozin, metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and aging can be associated with reduced renal function, monitor renal function more frequently after initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in the elderly and then adjust dose based on renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1 , 5.3) ] . Canagliflozin In 13 clinical trials of canagliflozin, 2,294 patients 65 years and older, and 351 patients 75 years and older were exposed to canagliflozin. Of these patients, 1,534 patients 65 years and older and 196 patients 75 years and older were exposed to the combination of canagliflozin and metformin HCl [see Clinical Studies (14) ] . Patients 65 years and older had a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume with canagliflozin (such as hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration), particularly with the 300 mg daily dose, compared to younger patients; a more prominent increase in the incidence was seen in patients who were 75 years and older [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Smaller reductions in HbA 1C with canagliflozin relative to placebo were seen in older (65 years and older; -0.61% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.74% with canagliflozin 300 mg relative to placebo) compared to younger patients (-0.72% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.87% with canagliflozin 300 mg relative to placebo). Metformin HCl Controlled clinical trials of metformin HCl did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. The initial and maintenance dosing of metformin HCl should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Any dose adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function [see Contraindications (4) , Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 8.6 Renal Impairment Canagliflozin The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin for glycemic control were evaluated in a trial that included patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) . These patients had less overall glycemic efficacy, and patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg per day had increases in serum potassium, which were transient and similar by the end of study. Patients with renal impairment using canagliflozin for glycemic control may also be more likely to experience hypotension and may be at higher risk for acute kidney injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] . Efficacy and safety studies with canagliflozin did not enroll patients with ESKD on dialysis or patients with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Canagliflozin is contraindicated in patients with ESKD on dialysis [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.1) ] . Metformin HCl Metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal impairment. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) or in patients on dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) , Contraindications (4) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Use of metformin HCl in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].