This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Invokamet safely and effectively. Before taking Invokamet please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Invokamet.

Warning

WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS and LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION WARNING: LACTIC ACIDOSIS and LOWER LIMB AMPUTATION See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Lactic Acidosis Postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. Symptoms included malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated blood lactate levels, anion gap acidosis, increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. (5.1) Risk factors include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs, age >65 years old, radiological studies with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states, excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the Full Prescribing Information. (5.1) If lactic acidosis is suspected, discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended. (5.1) Risk of Lower Limb Amputation In patients with type 2 diabetes who have established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or at risk for CVD, canagliflozin, a component of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, has been associated with lower limb amputations, most frequently of the toe and midfoot; some also involved the leg. (5.2) Before initiating, consider factors that may increase the risk of amputation. Monitor patients receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR for infections or ulcers of the lower limbs, and discontinue if these occur. (5.2) Lactic Acidosis Post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis have resulted in death, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias. The onset of metformin-associated lactic acidosis is often subtle, accompanied only by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, somnolence, and abdominal pain. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate levels (> 5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; and metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (e.g., carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Steps to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis in these high risk groups are provided in the full prescribing information [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7), and Use in Specific Populations (8.6, 8.7)]. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and institute general supportive measures in a hospital setting. Prompt hemodialysis is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Risk of Lower Limb Amputation An approximately 2-fold increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with canagliflozin, a component of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, was observed in CANVAS and CANVAS-R, two large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with type 2 diabetes who had established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or were at risk for CVD [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Amputations of the toe and midfoot were most frequent; however, amputations involving the leg were also observed. Some patients had multiple amputations, some involving both limbs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Before initiating, consider factors that may increase the risk of amputation, such as a history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy, and diabetic foot ulcers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Monitor patients receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR for infection, new pain or tenderness, sores or ulcers involving the lower limbs, and discontinue if these complications occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

Recent Changes

Indications and Usage (1) 10/2018
Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.7, 5.8, 5.12) 10/2018
Warnings and Precautions (5.6, 5.14) Removal 10/2018

Indications And Usage

INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR are a combination of canagliflozin and metformin hydrochloride (HCl) indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both canagliflozin and metformin HCl is appropriate. Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke) in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease (CVD) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. However, the effectiveness of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR on reducing the risk of major cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has not been established. INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR are a combination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and metformin hydrochloride (HCl), a biguanide, indicated: as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus when treatment with both canagliflozin and metformin HCl is appropriate (1) Canagliflozin is indicated to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease (1) Limitations of Use: Not for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus or diabetic ketoacidosis (1) Limitations of Use Not recommended in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus or for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths

INVOKAMET (canagliflozin and metformin HCl) tablets are available as follows: Canagliflozin Strength Metformin HCl Strength Color/Shape Tablet IdentifiersEmbossing appears on both sides of tablet. 50 mg 500 mg white/capsule-shaped CM 155 50 mg 1,000 mg beige/capsule-shaped CM 551 150 mg 500 mg yellow/capsule-shaped CM 215 150 mg 1,000 mg purple/capsule-shaped CM 611 INVOKAMET XR (canagliflozin and metformin HCl) extended-release tablets are available as follows: Canagliflozin Strength Metformin HCl Strength Color/Shape Tablet IdentifiersEmbossing appears on one side only of tablet. 50 mg 500 mg almost white to light orange/oblong, biconvex CM1 50 mg 1,000 mg pink/oblong, biconvex CM3 150 mg 500 mg orange/oblong, biconvex CM2 150 mg 1,000 mg reddish brown/oblong, biconvex CM4 INVOKAMET tablets: Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1,000 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1,000 mg (3) INVOKAMET XR extended-release tablets: Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg Canagliflozin 50 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1,000 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg Canagliflozin 150 mg and metformin hydrochloride 1,000 mg (3)

Contraindications

INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in patients with: Moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), end stage renal disease (ESRD) or patients on dialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Acute or chronic metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Serious hypersensitivity reaction to canagliflozin or metformin, such as anaphylaxis or angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10) and Adverse Reactions (6)]. Moderate to severe renal impairment (eGFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), end stage renal disease or dialysis (4, 5.1, 5.5) Metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis (4, 5.1) Serious hypersensitivity reaction to canagliflozin or metformin (4, 5.10)

Warning and Cautions

Hypotension: Before initiating, assess volume status and correct hypovolemia in patients with renal impairment, the elderly, in patients with low systolic blood pressure, or on diuretics, ACEi, or ARB. Monitor for signs and symptoms during therapy (5.3) Ketoacidosis: Assess patients who present with signs and symptoms of metabolic acidosis for ketoacidosis, regardless of blood glucose level. If suspected, discontinue, evaluate and treat promptly. Before initiating, consider risk factors for ketoacidosis. Patients may require monitoring and temporary discontinuation in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (5.4) Acute kidney injury: Consider temporarily discontinuing in settings of reduced oral intake or fluid losses. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue and promptly treat. Monitor renal function during therapy (5.5) Urosepsis and pyelonephritis: Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated (5.6) Hypoglycemia: Consider a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination (5.7) Necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene): Serious, life-threatening cases have occurred in both females and males. Assess patients presenting with pain or tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, along with fever or malaise. If suspected, institute prompt treatment (5.8) Genital mycotic infections: Monitor and treat if indicated (5.9) Hypersensitivity reactions: Discontinue and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve (5.10) Bone fracture: Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR (5.11) Vitamin B12 deficiency: Metformin may lower vitamin B12 levels. Measure hematological parameters annually and vitamin B12 at 2- to 3-year intervals and manage any abnormalities (5.12) Increased LDL-C: Monitor LDL-C and treat if appropriate (5.13) 5.1 Lactic Acidosis There have been post-marketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis, including fatal cases. These cases had a subtle onset and were accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, abdominal pain, respiratory distress, or increased somnolence; however, hypothermia, hypotension and resistant bradyarrhythmias have occurred with severe acidosis. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis was characterized by elevated blood lactate concentrations (>5 mmol/Liter), anion gap acidosis (without evidence of ketonuria or ketonemia), and an increased lactate:pyruvate ratio; metformin plasma levels generally >5 mcg/mL. Metformin decreases liver uptake of lactate increasing lactate blood levels which may increase the risk of lactic acidosis, especially in patients at risk. If metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. In INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR-treated patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to 170 mL/minute under good hemodynamic conditions). Hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery. Educate patients and their families about the symptoms of lactic acidosis and if these symptoms occur instruct them to discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and report these symptoms to their healthcare provider. For each of the known and possible risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis, recommendations to reduce the risk of and manage metformin-associated lactic acidosis are provided below: Renal Impairment: The postmarketing metformin-associated lactic acidosis cases primarily occurred in patients with significant renal impairment. The risk of metformin accumulation and metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the severity of renal impairment because metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney. Clinical recommendations based upon the patient's renal function include [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, obtain an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR less than 45 mL/minute/1.73 m2 [see Contraindications (4)]. Obtain an eGFR at least annually in all patients taking INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. In patients at increased risk for the development of renal impairment (e.g., the elderly), renal function should be assessed more frequently. Drug Interactions: The concomitant use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with specific drugs may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis: those that impair renal function, result in significant hemodynamic change, interfere with acid-base balance or increase metformin accumulation (e.g. cationic drugs) [see Drug Interactions (7)]. Therefore, consider more frequent monitoring of patients. Age 65 or Greater: The risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis increases with the patient's age because elderly patients have a greater likelihood of having hepatic, renal, or cardiac impairment than younger patients. Assess renal function more frequently in elderly patients [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)]. Radiological Studies with Contrast: Administration of intravascular iodinated contrast agents in metformin-treated patients has led to an acute decrease in renal function and the occurrence of lactic acidosis. Stop INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR at the time of, or prior to, an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2; in patients with a history of hepatic impairment, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinated contrast. Re-evaluate eGFR 48 hours after the imaging procedure, and restart INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR if renal function is stable. Surgery and Other Procedures: Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase the risk for volume depletion, hypotension and renal impairment. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake. Hypoxic States: Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in the setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia). Cardiovascular collapse (shock), acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause pre-renal azotemia. When such events occur, discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Excessive Alcohol Intake: Alcohol potentiates the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism and this may increase the risk of metformin-associated lactic acidosis. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Hepatic Impairment: Patients with hepatic impairment have developed metformin-associated lactic acidosis. This may be due to impaired lactate clearance resulting in higher lactate blood levels. Therefore, avoid use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease. 5.2 Lower Limb Amputation An approximately 2-fold increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with canagliflozin, a component of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, was observed in CANVAS and CANVAS-R, two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or were at risk for cardiovascular disease. The risk of lower limb amputations was observed at both the 100 mg and 300 mg once daily dosage regimens. The amputation data for CANVAS and CANVAS-R are shown in Tables 2 and 3, respectively [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Amputations of the toe and midfoot (99 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving canagliflozin in the two trials) were the most frequent; however, amputations involving the leg, below and above the knee, were also observed (41 out of 140 patients with amputations receiving canagliflozin in the two trials). Some patients had multiple amputations, some involving both lower limbs. Lower limb infections, gangrene, and diabetic foot ulcers were the most common precipitating medical events leading to the need for an amputation. The risk of amputation was highest in patients with a baseline history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, and neuropathy. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to the need for amputations, such as a history of prior amputation, peripheral vascular disease, neuropathy and diabetic foot ulcers. Counsel patients about the importance of routine preventative foot care. Monitor patients receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR for signs and symptoms of infection (including osteomyelitis), new pain or tenderness, sores or ulcers involving the lower limbs, and discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR if these complications occur. 5.3 Hypotension Canagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)] particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), elderly patients, patients on either diuretics or medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (e.g., angiotensin-converting-enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]), or patients with low systolic blood pressure. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in patients with one or more of these characteristics who were not already on canagliflozin, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating therapy. 5.4 Ketoacidosis Reports of ketoacidosis, a serious life-threatening condition requiring urgent hospitalization have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Fatal cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in patients taking canagliflozin. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not indicated for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus [see Indications and Usage (1)]. Patients treated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR who present with signs and symptoms consistent with severe metabolic acidosis should be assessed for ketoacidosis regardless of presenting blood glucose levels, as ketoacidosis associated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may be present even if blood glucose levels are less than 250 mg/dL. If ketoacidosis is suspected, INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR should be discontinued, patient should be evaluated, and prompt treatment should be instituted. Treatment of ketoacidosis may require insulin, fluid and carbohydrate replacement. In many of the postmarketing reports, and particularly in patients with type 1 diabetes, the presence of ketoacidosis was not immediately recognized and institution of treatment was delayed because presenting blood glucose levels were below those typically expected for diabetic ketoacidosis (often less than 250 mg/dL). Signs and symptoms at presentation were consistent with dehydration and severe metabolic acidosis and included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, generalized malaise, and shortness of breath. In some but not all cases, factors predisposing to ketoacidosis such as insulin dose reduction, acute febrile illness, reduced caloric intake due to illness or surgery, pancreatic disorders suggesting insulin deficiency (e.g., type 1 diabetes, history of pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery), and alcohol abuse were identified. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR consider factors in the patient history that may predispose to ketoacidosis including pancreatic insulin deficiency from any cause, caloric restriction, and alcohol abuse. In patients treated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR consider monitoring for ketoacidosis and temporarily discontinuing INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in clinical situations known to predispose to ketoacidosis (e.g., prolonged fasting due to acute illness or surgery). 5.5 Acute Kidney Injury Canagliflozin causes intravascular volume contraction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] and can cause acute kidney injury. There have been postmarketing reports of acute kidney injury, some requiring hospitalization and dialysis, in patients receiving canagliflozin; some reports involved patients younger than 65 years of age. Before initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, consider factors that may predispose patients to acute kidney injury including hypovolemia, chronic renal insufficiency, congestive heart failure, and concomitant medications (diuretics, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, NSAIDs). Consider temporarily discontinuing INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in any setting of reduced oral intake (such as acute illness or fasting) or fluid losses (such as gastrointestinal illness or excessive heat exposure); monitor patients for signs and symptoms of acute kidney injury. If acute kidney injury occurs, discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR promptly and institute treatment. Initiation of canagliflozin may increase serum creatinine and decrease eGFR. Patients with hypovolemia may be more susceptible to these changes. [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Renal function should be evaluated prior to initiation of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and monitored periodically thereafter. Dosage adjustment and more frequent renal function monitoring are recommended in patients with an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. 5.6 Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis There have been postmarketing reports of serious urinary tract infections including urosepsis and pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors increases the risk for urinary tract infections. Evaluate patients for signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections and treat promptly, if indicated [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. 5.7 Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin Insulin and insulin secretagogues are known to cause hypoglycemia. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. 5.8 Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's Gangrene) Reports of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum (Fournier's gangrene), a rare but serious and life-threatening necrotizing infection requiring urgent surgical intervention, have been identified in postmarketing surveillance in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving SGLT2 inhibitors, including canagliflozin. Cases have been reported in both females and males. Serious outcomes have included hospitalization, multiple surgeries, and death. Patients treated with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR presenting with pain or tenderness, erythema, or swelling in the genital or perineal area, along with fever or malaise, should be assessed for necrotizing fasciitis. If suspected, start treatment immediately with broad-spectrum antibiotics and, if necessary, surgical debridement. Discontinue INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, closely monitor blood glucose levels, and provide appropriate alternative therapy for glycemic control. 5.9 Genital Mycotic Infections Canagliflozin increases the risk of genital mycotic infections. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections and uncircumcised males were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Monitor and treat appropriately. 5.10 Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis, have been reported with canagliflozin. These reactions generally occurred within hours to days after initiating canagliflozin. If hypersensitivity reactions occur, discontinue use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR; treat and monitor until signs and symptoms resolve [see Contraindications (4) and Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)]. 5.11 Bone Fracture An increased risk of bone fracture, occurring as early as 12 weeks after treatment initiation, was observed in patients using canagliflozin in the CANVAS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. Consider factors that contribute to fracture risk prior to initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. 5.12 Vitamin B12 Levels In metformin HCl clinical trials of 29-week duration, a decrease to subnormal levels of previously normal serum vitamin B12 levels was observed in approximately 7% of patients. Such decrease, possibly due to interference with B12 absorption from the B12-intrinsic factor complex, may be associated with anemia but appears to be rapidly reversible with discontinuation of metformin or vitamin B12 supplementation. Certain individuals (those with inadequate vitamin B12 or calcium intake or absorption) appear to be predisposed to developing subnormal vitamin B12 levels. Measure hematologic parameters on an annual basis and vitamin B12 at 2- to 3-year intervals in patients on INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR and manage any abnormalities [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. 5.13 Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) Dose-related increases in LDL-C occur with canagliflozin [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Monitor LDL-C and treat if appropriate after initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR.

Adverse Reactions

The following important adverse reactions are also discussed elsewhere in the labeling: Lactic Acidosis [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.5)] Lower Limb Amputation [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Ketoacidosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)] Acute Kidney Injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)] Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)] Hypoglycemia with Concomitant Use of Sulfonylurea or Insulin [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)] Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's gangrene) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)] Genital Mycotic Infections [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)] Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)] Bone Fracture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)] Vitamin B12 Deficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)] Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)] Most common adverse reactions associated with canagliflozin (5% or greater incidence): female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infection, and increased urination (6.1) Most common adverse reactions associated with metformin (5% or greater incidence) are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, asthenia, indigestion, abdominal discomfort, and headache (6.1) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-800-526-7736 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to the rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Pool of Placebo-Controlled Trials Canagliflozin The data in Table 1 is derived from four 26-week placebo-controlled trials where canagliflozin was used as monotherapy in one trial and as add-on therapy in three trials. These data reflect exposure of 1,667 patients to canagliflozin and a mean duration of exposure to canagliflozin of 24 weeks with 1,275 patients exposed to a combination of canagliflozin and metformin. Patients received canagliflozin 100 mg (N=833), canagliflozin 300 mg (N=834) or placebo (N=646) once daily. The mean daily dose of metformin HCl was 2,138 mg (SD 337.3) for the 1,275 patients in the three placebo-controlled metformin add-on trials. The mean age of the population was 56 years and 2% were older than 75 years of age. Fifty percent (50%) of the population was male and 72% were Caucasian, 12% were Asian, and 5% were Black or African American. At baseline the population had diabetes for an average of 7.3 years, had a mean HbA1C of 8.0% and 20% had established microvascular complications of diabetes. Baseline renal function was normal or mildly impaired (mean eGFR 88 mL/min/1.73 m2). Table 1 shows common adverse reactions associated with the use of canagliflozin. These adverse reactions were not present at baseline, occurred more commonly on canagliflozin than on placebo, and occurred in at least 2% of patients treated with either canagliflozin 100 mg or canagliflozin 300 mg. Table 1: Adverse Reactions From Pool of Four 26–Week Placebo-Controlled Studies Reported in ≥ 2% of Canagliflozin-Treated PatientsThe four placebo-controlled trials included one monotherapy trial and three add-on combination trials with metformin, metformin and sulfonylurea, or metformin and pioglitazone. Adverse Reaction Placebo N=646 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=833 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=834 Note: Percentages were weighted by studies. Study weights were proportional to the harmonic mean of the three treatment sample sizes. Urinary tract infectionsUrinary tract infections include the following adverse reactions: Urinary tract infection, Cystitis, Kidney infection, and Urosepsis. 3.8% 5.9% 4.4% Increased urinationIncreased urination includes the following adverse reactions: Polyuria, Pollakiuria, Urine output increased, Micturition urgency, and Nocturia. 0.7% 5.1% 4.6% ThirstThirst includes the following adverse reactions: Thirst, Dry mouth, and Polydipsia. 0.1% 2.8% 2.4% Constipation 0.9% 1.8% 2.4% Nausea 1.6% 2.1% 2.3% N=312 N=425 N=430 Female genital mycotic infectionsFemale genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions: Vulvovaginal candidiasis, Vulvovaginal mycotic infection, Vulvovaginitis, Vaginal infection, Vulvitis, and Genital infection fungal. 2.8% 10.6% 11.6% Vulvovaginal pruritus 0.0% 1.6% 3.2% N=334 N=408 N=404 Male genital mycotic infectionsMale genital mycotic infections include the following adverse reactions: Balanitis or Balanoposthitis, Balanitis candida, and Genital infection fungal. 0.7% 4.2% 3.8% Abdominal pain was also more commonly reported in patients taking canagliflozin 100 mg (1.8%), 300 mg (1.7%) than in patients taking placebo (0.8%). Canagliflozin and Metformin The incidence and type of adverse reactions in the three 26-week placebo-controlled metformin add-on trials, representing a majority of data from the four 26-week placebo-controlled trials, was similar to the adverse reactions described in Table 1. There were no additional adverse reactions identified in the pooling of these three placebo-controlled trials that included metformin relative to the four placebo-controlled trials. In a trial with canagliflozin as initial combination therapy with metformin [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], an increased incidence of diarrhea was observed in the canagliflozin and metformin combination groups (4.2%) compared to canagliflozin or metformin monotherapy groups (1.7%). Pool of Placebo- and Active-Controlled Trials - Canagliflozin The occurrence of adverse reactions for canagliflozin was evaluated in patients participating in placebo- and active-controlled trials and in an integrated analysis of two cardiovascular trials. The types and frequency of common adverse reactions observed in the pool of eight clinical trials (which reflect an exposure of 6,177 patients to canagliflozin) were consistent with those listed in Table 1. Percentages were weighted by studies. Study weights were proportional to the harmonic mean of the three treatment sample sizes. In this pool, canagliflozin was also associated with the adverse reactions of fatigue (1.8%, 2.2%, and 2.0% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively) and loss of strength or energy (i.e., asthenia) (0.6%, 0.7%, and 1.1% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively). In the pool of eight clinical trials, the incidence rate of pancreatitis (acute or chronic) was 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.1% receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. In the pool of eight clinical trials, hypersensitivity-related adverse reactions (including erythema, rash, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema) was 3.0%, 3.8%, and 4.2% of patients receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Five patients experienced serious adverse reactions of hypersensitivity with canagliflozin, which included 4 patients with urticaria and 1 patient with a diffuse rash and urticaria occurring within hours of exposure to canagliflozin. Among these patients, 2 patients discontinued canagliflozin. One patient with urticaria had recurrence when canagliflozin was re-initiated. Photosensitivity-related adverse reactions (including photosensitivity reaction, polymorphic light eruption, and sunburn) occurred in 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.2% of patients receiving comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Other adverse reactions occurring more frequently on canagliflozin than on comparator were: Lower Limb Amputation An approximately 2-fold increased risk of lower limb amputations associated with canagliflozin was observed in CANVAS and CANVAS-R, two randomized, placebo-controlled trials evaluating patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or were at risk for cardiovascular disease. Patients in CANVAS and CANVAS-R were followed for an average of 5.7 and 2.1 years, respectively [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The amputation data for CANVAS and CANVAS-R are shown in Tables 2 and 3, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. Table 2: CANVAS Amputations Placebo N=1441 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=1445 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=1441 Canagliflozin (Pooled) N=2886 Note: Incidence is based on the number of patients with at least one amputation, and not the total number of amputation events. A patient's follow-up is calculated from Day 1 to the first amputation event date. Some patients had more than one amputation. Patients with an amputation, n (%) 22 (1.5) 50 (3.5) 45 (3.1) 95 (3.3) Total amputations 33 83 79 162 Amputation incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) 2.8 6.2 5.5 5.9 Hazard Ratio (95% CI) -- 2.24 (1.36, 3.69) 2.01 (1.20, 3.34) 2.12 (1.34, 3.38) Table 3: CANVAS-R Amputations Placebo N=2903 Canagliflozin 100 mg (with up-titration to 300 mg) N=2904 Note: Incidence is based on the number of patients with at least one amputation, and not the total number of amputation events. A patient's follow-up is calculated from Day 1 to the first amputation event date. Some patients had more than one amputation. Patients with an amputation, n (%) 25 (0.9) 45 (1.5) Total amputations 36 59 Amputation incidence rate (per 1000 patient-years) 4.2 7.5 Hazard Ratio (95% CI) -- 1.80 (1.10, 2.93) Renal Cell Carcinoma In the CANVAS trial (mean duration of follow-up of 5.7 years) [see Clinical Studies (14.2)], the incidence of renal cell carcinoma was 0.15% (2/1331) and 0.29% (8/2716) for placebo and canagliflozin, respectively, excluding patients with less than 6 months of follow-up, less than 90 days of treatment, or a history of renal cell carcinoma. A causal relationship to canagliflozin could not be established due to the limited number of cases. Volume Depletion-Related Adverse Reactions Canagliflozin results in an osmotic diuresis, which may lead to reductions in intravascular volume. In clinical trials, treatment with canagliflozin was associated with a dose-dependent increase in the incidence of volume depletion-related adverse reactions (e.g., hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration). An increased incidence was observed in patients on the 300 mg dose. The three factors associated with the largest increase in volume depletion-related adverse reactions were the use of loop diuretics, moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), and age 75 years and older (Table 4) [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.3), and Use in Specific Populations (8.5 and 8.6)]. Table 4: Patients With at Least One Volume Depletion-Related Adverse Reaction (Pooled Results from 8 Clinical Trials) Baseline Characteristic Comparator GroupIncludes placebo and active-comparator groups % Canagliflozin 100 mg % Canagliflozin 300 mg % Overall population 1.5% 2.3% 3.4% 75 years of age and olderPatients could have more than 1 of the listed risk factors 2.6% 4.9% 8.7% eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 2.5% 4.7% 8.1% Use of loop diuretic 4.7% 3.2% 8.8% Falls In a pool of nine clinical trials with mean duration of exposure to canagliflozin of 85 weeks, the proportion of patients who experienced falls was 1.3%, 1.5%, and 2.1% with comparator, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The higher risk of falls for patients treated with canagliflozin was observed within the first few weeks of treatment. Impairment in Renal Function Initiation of canagliflozin is associated with a dose-dependent increase in serum creatinine and a concomitant fall in estimated GFR (Table 5) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. The effect on eGFR was observed to reverse after treatment discontinuation suggesting acute hemodynamic changes may play a role in the renal function changes observed with canagliflozin. Table 5: Changes in Serum Creatinine and eGFR Associated with Canagliflozin in the Pool of Four Placebo-Controlled Trials and Moderate Renal Impairment Trial Placebo N=646 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=833 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=834 Pool of Four Placebo-Controlled Trials Baseline Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.84 0.82 0.82 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 87.0 88.3 88.8 Week 6 Change Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.01 0.03 0.05 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) -1.6 -3.8 -5.0 End of Treatment ChangeWeek 26 in mITT LOCF population Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.01 0.02 0.03 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) -1.6 -2.3 -3.4 Placebo N=90 Canagliflozin 100 mg N=90 Canagliflozin 300 mg N=89 Moderate Renal Impairment Trial Baseline Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.61 1.62 1.63 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 40.1 39.7 38.5 Week 3 Change Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.03 0.18 0.28 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) -0.7 -4.6 -6.2 End of Treatment Change Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.07 0.16 0.18 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) -1.5 -3.6 -4.0 In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials where patients had normal or mildly impaired baseline renal function, the proportion of patients who experienced at least one event of significant renal function decline, defined as an eGFR below 80 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 30% lower than baseline, was 2.1% with placebo, 2.0% with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 4.1% with canagliflozin 300 mg. At the end of treatment, 0.5% with placebo, 0.7% with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 1.4% with canagliflozin 300 mg had a significant renal function decline. Patients with moderate renal impairment at baseline experience larger mean changes in eGFR relative to patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. In a trial in patients with moderate renal impairment with a baseline eGFR of 30 to less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m2 (mean baseline eGFR 39 mL/min/1.73 m2) [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], the proportion of patients who experienced at least one event of significant renal function decline, defined as an eGFR 30% lower than baseline, was 6.9%, 18%, and 22.5% with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. At the end of treatment, 4.6%, 3.4%, and 2.2% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively, had a significant renal function decline. Genital Mycotic Infections In the pool of four placebo-controlled clinical trials, female genital mycotic infections (e.g., vulvovaginal mycotic infection, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and vulvovaginitis) occurred in 2.8%, 10.6%, and 11.6% of females treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Patients with a history of genital mycotic infections were more likely to develop genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin. Female patients who developed genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin were more likely to experience recurrence and require treatment with oral or topical antifungal agents and anti-microbial agents. In females, discontinuation due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.7% of patients treated with placebo and canagliflozin, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. In the pool of four placebo-controlled clinical trials, male genital mycotic infections (e.g., candidal balanitis, balanoposthitis) occurred in 0.7%, 4.2%, and 3.8% of males treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Male genital mycotic infections occurred more commonly in uncircumcised males and in males with a prior history of balanitis or balanoposthitis. Male patients who developed genital mycotic infections on canagliflozin were more likely to experience recurrent infections (22% on canagliflozin versus none on placebo), and require treatment with oral or topical antifungal agents and anti-microbial agents than patients on comparators. In males, discontinuations due to genital mycotic infections occurred in 0% and 0.5% of patients treated with placebo and canagliflozin, respectively. In the pooled analysis of 8 controlled trials, phimosis was reported in 0.3% of uncircumcised male patients treated with canagliflozin and 0.2% required circumcision to treat the phimosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Hypoglycemia In canagliflozin clinical trials, hypoglycemia was defined as any event regardless of symptoms, where biochemical hypoglycemia was documented (any glucose value below or equal to 70 mg/dL). Severe hypoglycemia was defined as an event consistent with hypoglycemia where the patient required the assistance of another person to recover, lost consciousness, or experienced a seizure (regardless of whether biochemical documentation of a low glucose value was obtained). In individual clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14.1)], episodes of hypoglycemia occurred at a higher rate when canagliflozin was co-administered with insulin or sulfonylureas (Table 6) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Table 6: Incidence of HypoglycemiaNumber of patients experiencing at least one event of hypoglycemia based on either biochemically documented episodes or severe hypoglycemic events in the intent-to-treat population in Controlled Clinical Studies Monotherapy (26 weeks) Placebo (N=192) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=195) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=197) Overall [N (%)] 5 (2.6) 7 (3.6) 6 (3.0) In Combination with Metformin (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin (N=183) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin (N=368) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin (N=367) Overall [N (%)] 3 (1.6) 16 (4.3) 17 (4.6) Severe [N (%)]Severe episodes of hypoglycemia were defined as those where the patient required the assistance of another person to recover, lost consciousness, or experienced a seizure (regardless of whether biochemical documentation of a low glucose value was obtained) 0 (0) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.3) In Combination with Metformin (18 weeks) Phase 2 clinical study with twice daily dosing (50 mg or 150 mg twice daily in combination with metformin) Placebo (N=93) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=93) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=93) Overall [N (%)] 3 (3.2) 4 (4.3) 3 (3.2) In Combination with Metformin + Sulfonylurea (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin + Sulfonylurea (N=156) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin + Sulfonylurea (N=157) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin + Sulfonylurea (N=156) Overall [N (%)] 24 (15.4) 43 (27.4) 47 (30.1) Severe [N (%)] 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 0 In Combination with Metformin + Pioglitazone (26 weeks) Placebo + Metformin + Pioglitazone (N=115) Canagliflozin 100 mg + Metformin + Pioglitazone (N=113) Canagliflozin 300 mg + Metformin + Pioglitazone (N=114) Overall [N (%)] 3 (2.6) 3 (2.7) 6 (5.3) In Combination with Insulin (18 weeks) Placebo (N=565) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=566) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=587) Overall [N (%)] 208 (36.8) 279 (49.3) 285 (48.6) Severe [N (%)] 14 (2.5) 10 (1.8) 16 (2.7) In Combination with Insulin and Metformin (18 weeks) Subgroup of patients (N=287) from insulin substudy on canagliflozin in combination with metformin and insulin (with or without other antiglycemic agents) Placebo (N=145) Canagliflozin 100 mg (N=139) Canagliflozin 300 mg (N=148) Overall [N (%)] 66 (45.5) 58 (41.7) 70 (47.3) Severe [N (%)] 4 (2.8) 1 (0.7) 3 (2.0) Bone Fracture In the CANVAS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)], the incidence rates of all adjudicated bone fracture were 1.09, 1.59, and 1.79 events per 100 patient-years of follow-up to placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The fracture imbalance was observed within the first 26 weeks of therapy and remained through the end of the trial. Fractures were more likely to be low trauma (e.g., fall from no more than standing height), and affect the distal portion of upper and lower extremities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]. Metformin The most common adverse reactions (5% or greater incidence) due to initiation of metformin are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, asthenia, indigestion, abdominal discomfort, and headache. Long-term treatment with metformin has been associated with a decrease in vitamin B12, which may result in clinically significant vitamin B12 deficiency (e.g., megaloblastic anemia) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. Laboratory and Imaging Tests Increases in Serum Potassium In a pooled population of patients (N=723) with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), increases in serum potassium to greater than 5.4 mEq/L and 15% above occurred in 5.3%, 5.0%, and 8.8% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Severe elevations (greater than or equal to 6.5 mEq/L) occurred in 0.4% of patients treated with placebo, no patients treated with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 1.3% of patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg. In these patients, increases in potassium were more commonly seen in those with elevated potassium at baseline. Among patients with moderate renal impairment, approximately 84% were taking medications that interfere with potassium excretion, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6)]. Increases in Serum Magnesium Dose-related increases in serum magnesium were observed early after initiation of canagliflozin (within 6 weeks) and remained elevated throughout treatment. In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials, the mean percent change in serum magnesium levels was 8.1% and 9.3% with canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively, compared to -0.6% with placebo. In a trial of patients with moderate renal impairment, serum magnesium levels increased by 0.2%, 9.2%, and 14.8% with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Increases in Serum Phosphate Dose-related increases in serum phosphate levels were observed with canagliflozin. In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials, the mean percent change in serum phosphate levels were 3.6% and 5.1% with canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively, compared to 1.5% with placebo. In a trial of patients with moderate renal impairment, the mean serum phosphate levels increased by 1.2%, 5.0%, and 9.3% with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Increases in Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (non-HDL-C) In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials, dose-related increases in LDL-C with canagliflozin were observed. Mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in LDL-C relative to placebo were 4.4 mg/dL (4.5%) and 8.2 mg/dL (8.0%) with canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. The mean baseline LDL-C levels were 104 to 110 mg/dL across treatment groups [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]. Dose-related increases in non-HDL-C with canagliflozin were observed. Mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in non-HDL-C relative to placebo were 2.1 mg/dL (1.5%) and 5.1 mg/dL (3.6%) with canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg, respectively. The mean baseline non-HDL-C levels were 140 to 147 mg/dL across treatment groups. Increases in Hemoglobin In the pool of four placebo-controlled trials, mean changes (percent changes) from baseline in hemoglobin were -0.18 g/dL (-1.1%) with placebo, 0.47 g/dL (3.5%) with canagliflozin 100 mg, and 0.51 g/dL (3.8%) with canagliflozin 300 mg. The mean baseline hemoglobin value was approximately 14.1 g/dL across treatment groups. At the end of treatment, 0.8%, 4.0%, and 2.7% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively, had hemoglobin above the upper limit of normal. Decreases in Bone Mineral Density Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a clinical trial of 714 older adults (mean age 64 years). At 2 years, patients randomized to canagliflozin 100 mg and canagliflozin 300 mg had placebo-corrected declines in BMD at the total hip of 0.9% and 1.2%, respectively, and at the lumbar spine of 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Additionally, placebo-adjusted BMD declines were 0.1% at the femoral neck for both canagliflozin doses and 0.4% at the distal forearm for patients randomized to canagliflozin 300 mg. The placebo-adjusted change at the distal forearm for patients randomized to canagliflozin 100 mg was 0%. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of canagliflozin. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Canagliflozin Ketoacidosis Acute Kidney Injury Anaphylaxis, Angioedema Urosepsis and Pyelonephritis Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Perineum (Fournier's gangrene) Metformin Cholestatic, hepatocellular, and mixed hepatocellular liver injury

Drug Interactions

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors may increase risk of lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring (7.1) Drugs that reduce metformin clearance (such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) may increase the accumulation of metformin. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use (7.1) Alcohol: Warn patients against excessive intake (7.1) UGT inducers (e.g., rifampin): Canagliflozin exposure is reduced. Consider increasing canagliflozin from a total daily dose of 100 mg to a total daily dose of 300 mg (2.5, 7.2) Digoxin: Monitor digoxin levels (7.2) 7.1 Drug Interactions with Metformin Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Topiramate or other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (e.g., zonisamide, acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide) frequently causes a decrease in serum bicarbonate and induce non-anion gap, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Concomitant use of these drugs with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. Consider more frequent monitoring of these patients. Drugs That Reduce Metformin Clearance Concomitant use of drugs that interfere with common renal tubular transport systems involved in the renal elimination of metformin (e.g., organic cationic transporter-2 [OCT2] / multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] inhibitors such as ranolazine, vandetanib, dolutegravir, and cimetidine) could increase systemic exposure to metformin and may increase the risk for lactic acidosis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Consider the benefits and risks of concomitant use. Alcohol Alcohol is known to potentiate the effect of metformin on lactate metabolism. Warn patients against excessive alcohol intake while receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. Drugs Affecting Glycemic Control Certain drugs tend to produce hyperglycemia and may lead to loss of glycemic control. These drugs include the thiazides and other diuretics, corticosteroids, phenothiazines, thyroid products, estrogens, oral contraceptives, phenytoin, nicotinic acid, sympathomimetics, calcium channel blockers, and isoniazid. When such drugs are administered to a patient receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, monitor for loss of blood glucose control. When such drugs are withdrawn from a patient receiving INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, monitor for hypoglycemia. 7.2 Drug Interactions with Canagliflozin UGT Enzyme Inducers Rifampin: Rifampin lowered canagliflozin exposure which may reduce the efficacy of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR. If an inducer of UGTs (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ritonavir) must be co-administered with INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR, consider increasing the total daily dose of canagliflozin to 300 mg if patients are currently tolerating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with a total daily dose of canagliflozin 100 mg, have an eGFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and require additional glycemic control. Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Digoxin Canagliflozin increased digoxin exposure. Digoxin, as a cationic drug, also has the potential to compete with metformin for common renal tubular transport systems [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Monitor patients taking INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR with concomitant digoxin for a need to adjust dose of either drug. Drug/Laboratory Test Interference Positive Urine Glucose Test Monitoring glycemic control with urine glucose tests is not recommended in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors as SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion and will lead to positive urine glucose tests. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control. Interference with 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) Assay Monitoring glycemic control with 1,5-AG assay is not recommended as measurements of 1,5-AG are unreliable in assessing glycemic control in patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors. Use alternative methods to monitor glycemic control.

Use In Specific Populations

Pregnancy: Advise females of the potential risk to a fetus especially during the second and third trimesters (8.1) Lactation: Not recommended when breastfeeding (8.2) Females and Males of Reproductive Potential: Advise premenopausal females of the potential for an unintended pregnancy (8.3). Geriatrics: Higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume. Assess renal function more frequently (5.3, 6.1, 8.5) Renal impairment: Higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume and renal function (2.4, 5.5, 8.6) Hepatic Impairment: Avoid use in patients with hepatic impairment (8.7) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Based on animal data showing adverse renal effects, INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Limited data with INVOKAMET, INVOKAMET XR or canagliflozin in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine a drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage. Published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk [see Data]. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations]. In animal studies, adverse renal pelvic and tubule dilatations that were not reversible were observed in rats when canagliflozin was administered at an exposure 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC during a period of renal development corresponding to the late second and third trimesters of human pregnancy. No adverse developmental effects were observed when metformin was administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 2- and 6-times, respectively, a 2000 mg clinical dose, based on body surface area [see Data]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects is 6–10% in women with pre-gestational diabetes with an HbA1C >7 and has been reported to be as high as 20–25% in women with a HbA1C >10. The estimated background risk of miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Poorly controlled diabetes in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth and delivery complications. Poorly controlled diabetes increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity. Data Human Data Published data from post-marketing studies have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes when metformin was used during pregnancy. However, these studies cannot definitely establish the absence of any metformin-associated risk because of methodological limitations, including small sample size and inconsistent comparator groups. Animal Data Canagliflozin Canagliflozin dosed directly to juvenile rats from postnatal day (PND) 21 until PND 90 at doses of 4, 20, 65, or 100 mg/kg increased kidney weights and dose dependently increased the incidence and severity of renal pelvic and tubular dilatation at all doses tested. Exposure at the lowest dose was greater than or equal to 0.5-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. These outcomes occurred with drug exposure during periods of renal development in rats that correspond to the late second and third trimester of human renal development. The renal pelvic dilatations observed in juvenile animals did not fully reverse within a 1 month recovery period. In embryo-fetal development studies in rats and rabbits, canagliflozin was administered for intervals coinciding with the first trimester period of organogenesis in humans. No developmental toxicities independent of maternal toxicity were observed when canagliflozin was administered at doses up to 100 mg/kg in pregnant rats and 160 mg/kg in pregnant rabbits during embryonic organogenesis or during a study in which maternal rats were dosed from gestation day (GD) 6 through PND 21, yielding exposures up to approximately 19-times the 300 mg clinical dose, based on AUC. Metformin Hydrochloride Metformin hydrochloride did not cause adverse developmental effects when administered to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats and rabbits up to 600 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. This represents an exposure of about 2- and 6-times a 2000 mg clinical dose based on body surface area (mg/m2) for rats and rabbits, respectively. Canagliflozin and Metformin No adverse developmental effects were observed when canagliflozin and metformin were co-administered to pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis at exposures up to 11 and 13 times, respectively, the 300 mg and 2000 mg clinical doses of canagliflozin and metformin based on AUC. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of INVOKAMET, INVOKAMET XR or canagliflozin in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk [see Data]. However, there is insufficient information on the effects of metformin on the breastfed infant and no available information on the effects of metformin on milk production. Canagliflozin is present in the milk of lactating rats [see Data]. Since human kidney maturation occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of life when lactational exposure may occur, there may be risk to the developing human kidney. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed infant, advise women that use of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended while breastfeeding. Data Human Data Published clinical lactation studies report that metformin is present in human milk which resulted in infant doses approximately 0.11% to 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 0.13 and 1. However, the studies were not designed to definitely establish the risk of use of metformin during lactation because of small sample size and limited adverse event data collected in infants. Animal Data Radiolabeled canagliflozin administered to lactating rats on day 13 post-partum was present at a milk/plasma ratio of 1.40, indicating that canagliflozin and its metabolites are transferred into milk at a concentration comparable to that in plasma. Juvenile rats directly exposed to canagliflozin showed a risk to the developing kidney (renal pelvic and tubular dilatations) during maturation. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Discuss the potential for unintended pregnancy with premenopausal women as therapy with metformin may result in ovulation in some anovulatory women. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in pediatric patients under 18 years of age have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use INVOKAMET and INVOKAMET XR Because renal function abnormalities can occur after initiating canagliflozin, metformin is substantially excreted by the kidney, and aging can be associated with reduced renal function, monitor renal function more frequently after initiating INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR in the elderly and then adjust dose based on renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.5)]. Canagliflozin In 13 clinical trials of canagliflozin, 2,294 patients 65 years and older, and 351 patients 75 years and older were exposed to canagliflozin. Of these patients, 1,534 patients 65 years and older and 196 patients 75 years and older were exposed to the combination of canagliflozin and metformin [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Patients 65 years and older had a higher incidence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume with canagliflozin (such as hypotension, postural dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, and dehydration), particularly with the 300 mg daily dose, compared to younger patients; a more prominent increase in the incidence was seen in patients who were 75 years and older [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. Smaller reductions in HbA1C with canagliflozin relative to placebo were seen in older (65 years and older; -0.61% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.74% with canagliflozin 300 mg relative to placebo) compared to younger patients (-0.72% with canagliflozin 100 mg and -0.87% with canagliflozin 300 mg relative to placebo). Metformin Controlled clinical trials of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients, although other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. The initial and maintenance dosing of metformin should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population. Any dose adjustment should be based on a careful assessment of renal function [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.6 Renal Impairment Canagliflozin The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin were evaluated in a trial that included patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFR 30 to less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m2). These patients had less overall glycemic efficacy and had a higher occurrence of adverse reactions related to reduced intravascular volume, renal-related adverse reactions, and decreases in eGFR compared to patients with mild renal impairment or normal renal function (eGFR greater than or equal to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Dose-related, transient mean increases in serum potassium were observed early after initiation of canagliflozin (i.e., within 3 weeks) in this trial. Increases in serum potassium of greater than 5.4 mEq/L and 15% above baseline occurred in 16.1%, 12.4%, and 27.0% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively. Severe elevations (greater than or equal to 6.5 mEq/L) occurred in 1.1%, 2.2%, and 2.2% of patients treated with placebo, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg, respectively [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.5), and Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment (eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), with ESRD, or receiving dialysis. Canagliflozin is not expected to be effective in these patient populations [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Use of metformin in patients with hepatic impairment has been associated with some cases of lactic acidosis. INVOKAMET/INVOKAMET XR is not recommended in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].