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Indications And Usage
FENOGLIDE is a peroxisome proliferator receptor alpha (PPARα) activator indicated as an adjunct to diet: •to reduce elevated LDL-C, Total-C, TG, and Apo B, and to increase HDL-C in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia. (1.1) •to treat adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. (1.2) Important Limitation of Use: Fenofibrate was not shown to reduce coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (5.1) 1.1 Primary Hypercholesterolemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia FENOGLIDE® is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (Total-C), triglycerides (TG), and apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia. 1.2 Severe Hypertriglyceridemia FENOGLIDE is also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for treatment of adult patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. Improving glycemic control in diabetic patients showing fasting chylomicronemia will usually reduce fasting triglycerides and eliminate chylomicronemia thereby obviating the need for pharmacologic intervention. Markedly elevated levels of serum triglycerides (e.g., >2,000 mg/dL) may increase the risk of developing pancreatitis. The effect of FENOGLIDE therapy on reducing this risk has not been adequately studied. 1.3 Important Limitations of Use Fenofibrate was not shown to reduce coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
•40 mg: White to off-white oval tablets. Debossed "FLO". •120 mg: White to off-white oval tablets. Debossed "FHI". •Oral tablets: 40 mg and 120 mg (3)
FENOGLIDE is contraindicated in: •patients with severe renal dysfunction, including those receiving dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. •patients with active liver disease, including those with primary biliary cirrhosis and unexplained persistent liver function abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. •patients with pre-existing gallbladder disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]. •patients with a known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. •nursing mothers [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.2 )]. •Severe renal dysfunction, including patients receiving dialysis (4, 8.6, 12.3) •Active liver disease (4, 5.3) •Gallbladder disease (4, 5.5) •Nursing mothers (4, 8.2) •Known hypersensitivity to fenofibrate (4)
Warning and Cautions
•Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis have been reported in patients taking fenofibrate. The risk for serious muscle toxicity is increased when fibrates are co-administered with a statin (with a significantly higher rate observed for gemfibrozil), particularly in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. (5.2) •Fenofibrate can increase serum transaminases. Monitor liver tests, including ALT, periodically during therapy. (5.3) •Fenofibrate can reversibly increase serum creatinine levels. (5.4) Monitor renal function periodically in patients with renal impairment. (8.6) •Fenofibrate increases cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to risk of cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. (5.5) •Exercise caution in concomitant treatment with coumarin anticoagulants. Adjust the dosage of coumarin to maintain the prothrombin time/INR at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. (5.6) •Acute hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and angioedema, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, including severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions have been reported postmarketing. Some cases were life-threatening and required emergency treatment. Discontinue fenofibrate and treat patients appropriately if reactions occur. (5.9) 5.1 Mortality and Coronary Heart Disease Morbidity The effect of FENOGLIDE on coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality has not been established. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid (ACCORD Lipid) trial was a randomized placebo-controlled study of 5,518 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus on background statin therapy treated with fenofibrate. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.7 years. Fenofibrate plus statin combination therapy showed a non-significant 8% relative risk reduction in the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and cardiovascular disease death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.08) (p=0.32) as compared to statin monotherapy. In a gender subgroup analysis, the hazard ratio for MACE in men receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.99), and the hazard ratio for MACE in women receiving combination therapy versus statin monotherapy was 1.38 (95% CI 0.98-1.94) (interaction p=0.01). The clinical significance of this subgroup finding is unclear. The Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study was a 5-year randomized, placebo-controlled study of 9,795 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate demonstrated a non-significant 11% relative reduction in the primary outcome of coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% CI 0.75-1.05, p=0.16) and a significant 11% reduction in the secondary outcome of total cardiovascular disease events (HR 0.89 [0.80-0.99], p=0.04). There was a non-significant 11% (HR 1.11 [0.95, 1.29], p=0.18) and 19% (HR 1.19 [0.90, 1.57], p=0.22) increase in total and coronary heart disease mortality, respectively, with fenofibrate as compared to placebo. Because of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical similarities between fenofibrate, clofibrate, and gemfibrozil, the adverse findings in 4 large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies with these other fibrate drugs may also apply to FENOGLIDE. In the Coronary Drug Project, a large study of post myocardial infarction of patients treated for 5 years with clofibrate, there was no difference in mortality seen between the clofibrate group and the placebo group. There was however, a difference in the rate of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis requiring surgery between the two groups (3.0% vs. 1.8%). In a study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), 5000 subjects without known coronary artery disease were treated with placebo or clofibrate for 5 years and followed for an additional one year. There was a statistically significant, higher age-adjusted all-cause mortality in the clofibrate group compared with the placebo group (5.70% vs. 3.96%, p≤0.01). Excess mortality was due to a 33% increase in non-cardiovascular causes, including malignancy, post-cholecystectomy complications, and pancreatitis. This appeared to confirm the higher risk of gallbladder disease seen in clofibrate-treated patients studied in the Coronary Drug Project. The Helsinki Heart Study was a large (n=4,081) study of middle-aged men without a history of coronary artery disease. Subjects received either placebo or gemfibrozil for 5 years, with a 3.5 year open extension afterward. Total mortality was numerically higher in the gemfibrozil randomization group but did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.19, 95% confidence interval for relative risk G:P=0.91-1.64). Although cancer deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group (p=0.11), cancers (excluding basal cell carcinoma) were diagnosed with equal frequency in both study groups. Due to the limited size of the study, the relative risk of death from any cause was not shown to be different than that seen in the 9 year follow-up data from the WHO study (RR=1.29). A secondary prevention component of the Helsinki Heart Study enrolled middle-aged men excluded from the primary prevention study because of known or suspected coronary heart disease. Subjects received gemfibrozil or placebo for 5 years. Although cardiac deaths trended higher in the gemfibrozil group, this was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.94-5.05). 5.2 Skeletal Muscle Fibrates increase the risk for myopathy and have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. The risk for serious muscle toxicity appears to be increased in elderly patients and in patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, or hypothyroidism. Myopathy should be considered in any patient with diffuse myalgias, muscle tenderness or weakness, and/or marked elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever. CPK levels should be assessed in patients reporting these symptoms, and FENOGLIDE therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated CPK levels occur or myopathy/myositis is suspected or diagnosed. Data from observational studies indicate that the risk for rhabdomyolysis is increased when fibrates, in particular gemfibrozil, are co-administered with an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin). The combination should be avoided unless the benefit of further alterations in lipid levels is likely to outweigh the increased risk of this drug combination [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.4)]. 5.3 Liver Function Fenofibrate at doses equivalent to 87 mg to 130 mg fenofibrate per day [at the highest dose, comparable to FENOGLIDE, 120 mg] has been associated with increases in serum transaminases [AST (SGOT) or ALT (SGPT)]. In a pooled analysis of 10 placebo-controlled trials, increases to >3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 5.3% of patients taking fenofibrate versus 1.1% of patients treated with placebo. When transaminase determinations were followed either after discontinuation of treatment or during continued treatment, a return to normal limits was usually observed. The incidence of increases in transaminases related to fenofibrate therapy appears to be dose related. In an 8-week dose-ranging study, the incidence of ALT or AST elevations to at least three times the upper limit of normal was 13% in patients receiving dosages equivalent to 87 mg to 130 mg fenofibrate per day and was 0% in those receiving dosages equivalent to 43 mg or less fenofibrate per day, or placebo. Hepatocellular, chronic active and cholestatic hepatitis have been reported after exposures of weeks to several years. In extremely rare cases, cirrhosis has been reported in association with chronic active hepatitis. Baseline and regular periodic monitoring of liver tests, including serum ALT (SGPT) should be performed for the duration of therapy with FENOGLIDE, and therapy discontinued if enzyme levels persist above three times the normal limit. 5.4 Serum Creatinine Elevations in serum creatinine have been reported in patients on fenofibrate. These elevations tend to return to baseline following discontinuation of fenofibrate. The clinical significance of these observations is unknown. Monitor renal function in patients with renal impairment taking FENOGLIDE. Renal monitoring should also be considered for patients taking FENOGLIDE at risk for renal insufficiency such as the elderly and patients with diabetes. 5.5 Cholelithiasis Fenofibrate, like clofibrate and gemfibrozil, may increase cholesterol excretion into the bile, leading to cholelithiasis. If cholelithiasis is suspected, gallbladder studies are indicated. FENOGLIDE therapy should be discontinued if gallstones are found. 5.6 Coumarin Anticoagulants Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with FENOGLIDE because of the potentiation of coumarin-type anticoagulants in prolonging the prothrombin time/International Normalized Ratio (PT/INR). To prevent bleeding complications, frequent monitoring of PT/INR and dose adjustment of the anticoagulant are recommended until PT/INR has stabilized [see Drug Interactions (7.1)]. 5.7 Pancreatitis Pancreatitis has been reported in patients taking fenofibrate, gemfibrozil, and clofibrate. This occurrence may represent a failure of efficacy in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia, a direct drug effect, or a secondary phenomenon mediated through biliary tract stone or sludge formation with obstruction of the common bile duct. 5.8 Hematologic Changes Mild to moderate hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell decreases have been observed in patients following initiation of fenofibrate therapy. However, these levels stabilize during long-term administration. Thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported in individuals treated with fenofibrate. Periodic monitoring of red and white blood cell counts is recommended during the first 12 months of FENOGLIDE administration. 5.9 Hypersensitivity Reactions Acute Hypersensitivity Anaphylaxis and angioedema have been reported postmarketing with fenofibrate. In some cases, reactions were life-threatening and required emergency treatment. If a patient develops signs or symptoms of an acute hypersensitivity reaction, advise them to seek immediate medical attention and discontinue fenofibrate. Delayed Hypersensitivity Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, and Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), have been reported postmarketing, occurring days to weeks after initiation of fenofibrate. The cases of DRESS were associated with cutaneous reactions (such as rash or exfoliative dermatitis) and a combination of eosinophilia, fever, systemic organ involvement (renal, hepatic, or respiratory). Discontinue fenofibrate and treat patients appropriately if SCAR is suspected. 5.10 Venothromboembolic Disease In the FIELD trial, pulmonary embolus (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) were observed at higher rates in the fenofibrate than the placebo-treated group. Of 9,795 patients enrolled in FIELD, there were 4,900 in the placebo group and 4,895 in the fenofibrate group. For DVT, there were 48 events (1%) in the placebo group and 67 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.074); and for PE, there were 32 (0.7%) events in the placebo group and 53 (1%) in the fenofibrate group (p = 0.022). In the Coronary Drug Project, a higher proportion of the clofibrate group experienced definite or suspected fatal or nonfatal pulmonary embolism or thrombophlebitis than the placebo group (5.2% vs. 3.3% at five years; p <0.01). 5.11 Paradoxical Decreases in HDL Cholesterol Levels There have been postmarketing and clinical trial reports of severe decreases in HDL cholesterol levels (as low as 2 mg/dL) occurring in diabetic and non-diabetic patients initiated on fibrate therapy. The decrease in HDL-C is mirrored by a decrease in apolipoprotein A1. This decrease has been reported to occur within 2 weeks to years after initiation of fibrate therapy. The HDL-C levels remain depressed until fibrate therapy has been withdrawn; the response to withdrawal of fibrate therapy is rapid and sustained. The clinical significance of this decrease in HDL-C is unknown. It is recommended that HDL-C levels be checked within the first few months after initiation of fibrate therapy. If a severely depressed HDL-C level is detected, fibrate therapy should be withdrawn, and the HDL-C level monitored until it has returned to baseline, and fibrate therapy should not be re-initiated.
The most common adverse reactions (>2% and at least 1% greater than placebo) are abnormal liver tests, increased AST, increased ALT, increased CPK, and rhinitis. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC at 1-800-321-4576 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in clinical practice. Adverse reactions reported by 2% or more of patients treated with fenofibrate and greater than placebo during double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are listed in Table 1. Adverse reactions led to discontinuation of treatment in 5.0% of patients treated with fenofibrate and in 3.0% treated with placebo. Increases in liver function tests were the most frequent events, causing discontinuation of fenofibrate treatment in 1.6% of patients in double-blind trials. Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported by 2% or More of Patients Treated with Fenofibrate and Greater than Placebo During the Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials BODY SYSTEM Adverse Reaction Fenofibrate* (N=439) Placebo (N=365) *Dosage equivalent to 130 mg fenofibrate BODY AS A WHOLE Abdominal Pain 4.6% 4.4% Back Pain 3.4% 2.5% Headache 3.2% 2.7% DIGESTIVE Nausea 2.3% 1.9% Constipation 2.1% 1.4% METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS Abnormal Liver Tests 7.5% 1.4% Increased AST 3.4% 0.5% Increased ALT 3.0% 1.6% Increased Creatine Phosphokinase 3.0% 1.4% RESPIRATORY Respiratory Disorder 6.2% 5.5% Rhinitis 2.3% 1.1% Urticaria was seen in 1.1 vs. 0% and rash in 1.4 vs. 0.8% of fenofibrate and placebo patients respectively in controlled trials. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of fenofibrate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, pancreatitis, acute renal failure, muscle spasms, hepatitis, cirrhosis, anemia, arthralgia, decreases in hematocrit, white blood cell decreases, asthenia, and severely depressed HDL cholesterol levels. Photosensitivity reactions have occurred days to months after initiation; in some of these cases, patients reported a prior photosensitivity reaction to ketoprofen.
•Coumarin Anticoagulants (7.1) •Immunosuppressants (7.2) •Bile-Acid Binding Resins (7.3) 7.1 Coumarin Anticoagulants Caution should be exercised when coumarin anticoagulants are given in conjunction with FENOGLIDE. The dosage of the anticoagulants should be reduced to maintain the PT/INR at the desired level to prevent bleeding complications. Frequent PT/INR determinations are advisable until it has been definitely determined that the prothrombin time/INR has stabilized [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]. 7.2 Immunosuppressants Immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus can produce nephrotoxicity with decreases in creatinine clearance and rises in serum creatinine, and because renal excretion is the primary elimination route of fibrate drugs including FENOGLIDE, there is a risk that an interaction will lead to deterioration of renal function. The benefits and risks of using FENOGLIDE with immunosuppressants and other potentially nephrotoxic agents should be carefully considered, and the lowest effective dose employed and renal function monitored. 7.3 Bile-Acid Binding Resins Since bile acid resins may bind other drugs given concurrently, patients should take FENOGLIDE at least 1 hour before or 4 to 6 hours after a bile acid binding resin to avoid impeding its absorption. 7.4 Colchicine Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with fenofibrates co-administered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing fenofibrate with colchicine.
Use In Specific Populations
•Geriatric Use: Determine dose selection on the basis of renal function. (8.5) •Renal Impairment: Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. (8.6) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Limited available data with fenofibrate use in pregnant women are insufficient to determine a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, no evidence of embryo-fetal toxicity was observed with oral administration of fenofibrate in rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses less than or equivalent to the maximum recommended clinical dose of 120 mg daily, based on body surface area (mg/m2). Adverse reproductive outcomes occurred at higher doses in the presence of maternal toxicity [see Data]. FENOGLIDE should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Animal Data In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 14, 127, and 361 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-15 during the period of organogenesis, no adverse developmental findings were observed at 14 mg/kg/day (less than the clinical exposure at the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 300 mg fenofibrate daily, equivalent to 120 mg FENOGLIDE daily, based on body surface area comparisons). Increased fetal skeletal malformations were observed at maternally toxic doses (361 mg/kg/day, corresponding to 12 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) that significantly suppressed maternal body weight gain. In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 15, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6-18 during the period of organogenesis and allowed to deliver, no adverse developmental findings were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (a dose that approximates the clinical exposure at the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons). Aborted litters were observed at maternally toxic doses (≥ 150 mg/kg/day, corresponding to ≥ 10 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) that suppressed maternal body weight gain. In pregnant rats given oral dietary doses of 15, 75, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestation day 15 through lactation day 21 (weaning), no adverse developmental effects were observed at 15 mg/kg/day (less than the clinical exposure at the MRHD, based on body surface area comparisons), despite maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain). Post-implantation loss was observed at ≥ 75 mg/kg/day (≥ 2 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD) in the presence of maternal toxicity (decreased weight gain). Decreased pup survival was noted at 300 mg/kg/day (10 times the clinical exposure at the MRHD), which was associated with decreased maternal body weight gain/maternal neglect. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no available information on the presence of fenofibrate in human milk, effects of the drug on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Fenofibrate is present in the milk of rats, and is therefore likely to be present in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, such as disruption of infant lipid metabolism, women should not breastfeed during treatment with FENOGLIDE and for 5 days after the final dose [see Contraindications (4)]. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and efficacy have not been established in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Fenofibric acid is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Fenofibric acid exposure is not influenced by age. Since elderly patients have a higher incidence of renal impairment, dose selection for the elderly should be made on the basis of renal function [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Elderly patients with normal renal function should require no dose modifications. Consider monitoring renal function in elderly patients taking FENOGLIDE. 8.6 Renal Impairment The use of FENOGLIDE should be avoided in patients with severe renal impairment [see Contraindications (4)]. Dose reduction is required in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Monitoring renal function in patients with renal impairment is recommended. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment The use of FENOGLIDE has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment [see Contraindications (4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].