This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Eliquis safely and effectively. Before taking Eliquis please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Eliquis.
BOXED WARNING WARNING: (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF ELIQUIS INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA (A) PREMATURE DISCONTINUATION OF ELIQUIS INCREASES THE RISK OF THROMBOTIC EVENTS Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including ELIQUIS, increases the risk of thrombotic events. If anticoagulation with ELIQUIS is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1), and Clinical Studies (14.1)]. (B) SPINAL/EPIDURAL HEMATOMA Epidural or spinal hematomas may occur in patients treated with ELIQUIS who are receiving neuraxial anesthesia or undergoing spinal puncture. These hematomas may result in long-term or permanent paralysis. Consider these risks when scheduling patients for spinal procedures. Factors that can increase the risk of developing epidural or spinal hematomas in these patients include: • use of indwelling epidural catheters • concomitant use of other drugs that affect hemostasis, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), platelet inhibitors, other anticoagulants • a history of traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal punctures • a history of spinal deformity or spinal surgery • optimal timing between the administration of ELIQUIS and neuraxial procedures is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment. If neurological compromise is noted, urgent treatment is necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. Consider the benefits and risks before neuraxial intervention in patients anticoagulated or to be anticoagulated [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Indications And Usage
1.1 Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation ELIQUIS ® (apixaban) is indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. 1.2 Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery ELIQUIS is indicated for the prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE), in patients who have undergone hip or knee replacement surgery. 1.3 Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis ELIQUIS is indicated for the treatment of DVT. 1.4 Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism ELIQUIS is indicated for the treatment of PE. 1.5 Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and PE ELIQUIS is indicated to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT and PE following initial therapy.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
2.5 mg, yellow, round, biconvex, film-coated tablets with “893” debossed on one side and “2½” on the other side. 5 mg, pink, oval-shaped, biconvex, film-coated tablets with “894” debossed on one side and “5” on the other side.
ELIQUIS is contraindicated in patients with the following conditions: Active pathological bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] Severe hypersensitivity reaction to ELIQUIS (e.g., anaphylactic reactions) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]
Warning and Cautions
5.1 Increased Risk of Thrombotic Events after Premature Discontinuation Premature discontinuation of any oral anticoagulant, including ELIQUIS, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. An increased rate of stroke was observed during the transition from ELIQUIS to warfarin in clinical trials in atrial fibrillation patients. If ELIQUIS is discontinued for a reason other than pathological bleeding or completion of a course of therapy, consider coverage with another anticoagulant [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Studies (14.1) ] . 5.2 Bleeding ELIQUIS increases the risk of bleeding and can cause serious, potentially fatal, bleeding [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ] . Concomitant use of drugs affecting hemostasis increases the risk of bleeding. These include aspirin and other antiplatelet agents, other anticoagulants, heparin, thrombolytic agents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [see Drug Interactions (7.3) ] . Advise patients of signs and symptoms of blood loss and to report them immediately or go to an emergency room. Discontinue ELIQUIS in patients with active pathological hemorrhage. Reversal of Anticoagulant Effect An agent to reverse the anti-factor Xa activity of apixaban is available. The pharmacodynamic effect of ELIQUIS can be expected to persist for at least 24 hours after the last dose, i.e., for about two drug half-lives. Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), activated prothrombin complex concentrate or recombinant factor VIIa may be considered, but have not been evaluated in clinical studies [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] . When PCCs are used, monitoring for the anticoagulation effect of apixaban using a clotting test (PT, INR, or aPTT) or anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity is not useful and is not recommended. Activated oral charcoal reduces absorption of apixaban, thereby lowering apixaban plasma concentration [see Overdosage (10)] . Hemodialysis does not appear to have a substantial impact on apixaban exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Protamine sulfate and vitamin K are not expected to affect the anticoagulant activity of apixaban. There is no experience with antifibrinolytic agents (tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid) in individuals receiving apixaban. There is no experience with systemic hemostatics (desmopressin and aprotinin) in individuals receiving apixaban, and they are not expected to be effective as a reversal agent. 5.3 Spinal/Epidural Anesthesia or Puncture When neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal/epidural puncture is employed, patients treated with antithrombotic agents for prevention of thromboembolic complications are at risk of developing an epidural or spinal hematoma which can result in long-term or permanent paralysis. The risk of these events may be increased by the postoperative use of indwelling epidural catheters or the concomitant use of medicinal products affecting hemostasis. Indwelling epidural or intrathecal catheters should not be removed earlier than 24 hours after the last administration of ELIQUIS. The next dose of ELIQUIS should not be administered earlier than 5 hours after the removal of the catheter. The risk may also be increased by traumatic or repeated epidural or spinal puncture. If traumatic puncture occurs, delay the administration of ELIQUIS for 48 hours. Monitor patients frequently for signs and symptoms of neurological impairment (e.g., numbness or weakness of the legs, or bowel or bladder dysfunction). If neurological compromise is noted, urgent diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Prior to neuraxial intervention the physician should consider the potential benefit versus the risk in anticoagulated patients or in patients to be anticoagulated for thromboprophylaxis. 5.4 Patients with Prosthetic Heart Valves The safety and efficacy of ELIQUIS have not been studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Therefore, use of ELIQUIS is not recommended in these patients. 5.5 Acute PE in Hemodynamically Unstable Patients or Patients who Require Thrombolysis or Pulmonary Embolectomy Initiation of ELIQUIS is not recommended as an alternative to unfractionated heparin for the initial treatment of patients with PE who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the prescribing information. Increased risk of thrombotic events after premature discontinuation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] Spinal/epidural anesthesia or puncture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation The safety of ELIQUIS was evaluated in the ARISTOTLE and AVERROES studies [see Clinical Studies (14) ] , including 11,284 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 5 mg twice daily and 602 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 2.5 mg twice daily. The duration of ELIQUIS exposure was ≥12 months for 9375 patients and ≥24 months for 3369 patients in the two studies. In ARISTOTLE, the mean duration of exposure was 89 weeks (>15,000 patient-years). In AVERROES, the mean duration of exposure was approximately 59 weeks (>3000 patient-years). The most common reason for treatment discontinuation in both studies was for bleeding-related adverse reactions; in ARISTOTLE this occurred in 1.7% and 2.5% of patients treated with ELIQUIS and warfarin, respectively, and in AVERROES, in 1.5% and 1.3% on ELIQUIS and aspirin, respectively. Bleeding in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in ARISTOTLE and AVERROES Tables 1 and 2 show the number of patients experiencing major bleeding during the treatment period and the bleeding rate (percentage of subjects with at least one bleeding event per 100 patient-years) in ARISTOTLE and AVERROES. Table 1: Bleeding Events in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in ARISTOTLE* ELIQUIS N=9088 n (per 100 pt-year) Warfarin N=9052 n (per 100 pt-year) Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Major † 327 (2.13) 462 (3.09) 0.69 (0.60, 0.80) <0.0001 Intracranial (ICH) ‡ 52 (0.33) 125 (0.82) 0.41 (0.30, 0.57) - Hemorrhagic stroke § 38 (0.24) 74 (0.49) 0.51 (0.34, 0.75) - Other ICH 15 (0.10) 51 (0.34) 0.29 (0.16, 0.51) - Gastrointestinal (GI) ¶ 128 (0.83) 141 (0.93) 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) - Fatal** 10 (0.06) 37 (0.24) 0.27 (0.13, 0.53) - Intracranial 4 (0.03) 30 (0.20) 0.13 (0.05, 0.37) - Non-intracranial 6 (0.04) 7 (0.05) 0.84 (0.28, 2.15) - * Bleeding events within each subcategory were counted once per subject, but subjects may have contributed events to multiple endpoints. Bleeding events were counted during treatment or within 2 days of stopping study treatment (on-treatment period). † Defined as clinically overt bleeding accompanied by one or more of the following: a decrease in hemoglobin of ≥2 g/dL, a transfusion of 2 or more units of packed red blood cells, bleeding at a critical site: intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular, pericardial, intra-articular, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, retroperitoneal or with fatal outcome. ‡ Intracranial bleed includes intracerebral, intraventricular, subdural, and subarachnoid bleeding. Any type of hemorrhagic stroke was adjudicated and counted as an intracranial major bleed. § On-treatment analysis based on the safety population, compared to ITT analysis presented in Section 14. ¶ GI bleed includes upper GI, lower GI, and rectal bleeding. ** Fatal bleeding is an adjudicated death with the primary cause of death as intracranial bleeding or non-intracranial bleeding during the on-treatment period. In ARISTOTLE, the results for major bleeding were generally consistent across most major subgroups including age, weight, CHADS 2 score (a scale from 0 to 6 used to estimate risk of stroke, with higher scores predicting greater risk), prior warfarin use, geographic region, and aspirin use at randomization (Figure 1). Subjects treated with apixaban with diabetes bled more (3.0% per year) than did subjects without diabetes (1.9% per year). Figure 1: Major Bleeding Hazard Ratios by Baseline Characteristics – ARISTOTLE Study Note: The figure above presents effects in various subgroups, all of which are baseline characteristics and all of which were prespecified, if not the groupings. The 95% confidence limits that are shown do not take into account how many comparisons were made, nor do they reflect the effect of a particular factor after adjustment for all other factors. Apparent homogeneity or heterogeneity among groups should not be over-interpreted. Table 2: Bleeding Events in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation in AVERROES ELIQUIS N=2798 n (%/year) Aspirin N=2780 n (%/year) Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Events associated with each endpoint were counted once per subject, but subjects may have contributed events to multiple endpoints. Major 45 (1.41) 29 (0.92) 1.54 (0.96, 2.45) 0.07 Fatal 5 (0.16) 5 (0.16) 0.99 (0.23, 4.29) - Intracranial 11 (0.34) 11 (0.35) 0.99 (0.39, 2.51) - ARISTOTLE Major Bleeding Forest Plot Other Adverse Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions (including drug hypersensitivity, such as skin rash, and anaphylactic reactions, such as allergic edema) and syncope were reported in <1% of patients receiving ELIQUIS. Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery The safety of ELIQUIS has been evaluated in 1 Phase II and 3 Phase III studies including 5924 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 2.5 mg twice daily undergoing major orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs (elective hip replacement or elective knee replacement) treated for up to 38 days. In total, 11% of the patients treated with ELIQUIS 2.5 mg twice daily experienced adverse reactions. Bleeding results during the treatment period in the Phase III studies are shown in Table 3. Bleeding was assessed in each study beginning with the first dose of double-blind study drug. Table 3: Bleeding During the Treatment Period in Patients Undergoing Elective Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery Bleeding Endpoint* ADVANCE-3 Hip Replacement Surgery ADVANCE-2 Knee Replacement Surgery ADVANCE-1 Knee Replacement Surgery * All bleeding criteria included surgical site bleeding. † Includes 13 subjects with major bleeding events that occurred before the first dose of apixaban (administered 12 to 24 hours post-surgery). ‡ Includes 5 subjects with major bleeding events that occurred before the first dose of apixaban (administered 12 to 24 hours post-surgery). § Intracranial, intraspinal, intraocular, pericardial, an operated joint requiring re-operation or intervention, intramuscular with compartment syndrome, or retroperitoneal. Bleeding into an operated joint requiring re-operation or intervention was present in all patients with this category of bleeding. Events and event rates include one enoxaparin-treated patient in ADVANCE-1 who also had intracranial hemorrhage. ¶ CRNM = clinically relevant nonmajor. ELIQUIS 2.5 mg po bid 35±3 days Enoxaparin 40 mg sc qd 35±3 days ELIQUIS 2.5 mg po bid 12±2 days Enoxaparin 40 mg sc qd 12±2 days ELIQUIS 2.5 mg po bid 12±2 days Enoxaparin 30 mg sc q12h 12±2 days First dose 12 to 24 hours post surgery First dose 9 to 15 hours prior to surgery First dose 12 to 24 hours post surgery First dose 9 to 15 hours prior to surgery First dose 12 to 24 hours post surgery First dose 12 to 24 hours post surgery All treated N=2673 N=2659 N=1501 N=1508 N=1596 N=1588 Major (including surgical site) 22 (0.82%) † 18 (0.68%) 9 (0.60%) ‡ 14 (0.93%) 11 (0.69%) 22 (1.39%) Fatal 0 0 0 0 0 1 (0.06%) Hgb decrease ≥2 g/dL 13 (0.49%) 10 (0.38%) 8 (0.53%) 9 (0.60%) 10 (0.63%) 16 (1.01%) Transfusion of ≥2 units RBC 16 (0.60%) 14 (0.53%) 5 (0.33%) 9 (0.60%) 9 (0.56%) 18 (1.13%) Bleed at critical site § 1 (0.04%) 1 (0.04%) 1 (0.07%) 2 (0.13%) 1 (0.06%) 4 (0.25%) Major + CRNM ¶ 129 (4.83%) 134 (5.04%) 53 (3.53%) 72 (4.77%) 46 (2.88%) 68 (4.28%) All 313 (11.71%) 334 (12.56%) 104 (6.93%) 126 (8.36%) 85 (5.33%) 108 (6.80%) Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery in the 1 Phase II study and the 3 Phase III studies are listed in Table 4. Table 4: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of Patients in Either Group Undergoing Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery ELIQUIS, n (%) 2.5 mg po bid N=5924 Enoxaparin, n (%) 40 mg sc qd or 30 mg sc q12h N=5904 Nausea 153 (2.6) 159 (2.7) Anemia (including postoperative and hemorrhagic anemia, and respective laboratory parameters) 153 (2.6) 178 (3.0) Contusion 83 (1.4) 115 (1.9) Hemorrhage (including hematoma, and vaginal and urethral hemorrhage) 67 (1.1) 81 (1.4) Postprocedural hemorrhage (including postprocedural hematoma, wound hemorrhage, vessel puncture-site hematoma, and catheter-site hemorrhage) 54 (0.9) 60 (1.0) Transaminases increased (including alanine aminotransferase increased and alanine aminotransferase abnormal) 50 (0.8) 71 (1.2) Aspartate aminotransferase increased 47 (0.8) 69 (1.2) Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased 38 (0.6) 65 (1.1) Less common adverse reactions in apixaban-treated patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery occurring at a frequency of ≥0.1% to <1%: Blood and lymphatic system disorders: thrombocytopenia (including platelet count decreases) Vascular disorders: hypotension (including procedural hypotension) Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: epistaxis Gastrointestinal disorders: gastrointestinal hemorrhage (including hematemesis and melena), hematochezia Hepatobiliary disorders: liver function test abnormal, blood alkaline phosphatase increased, blood bilirubin increased Renal and urinary disorders: hematuria (including respective laboratory parameters) Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: wound secretion, incision-site hemorrhage (including incision-site hematoma), operative hemorrhage Less common adverse reactions in apixaban-treated patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery occurring at a frequency of <0.1%: Gingival bleeding, hemoptysis, hypersensitivity, muscle hemorrhage, ocular hemorrhage (including conjunctival hemorrhage), rectal hemorrhage Treatment of DVT and PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT or PE The safety of ELIQUIS has been evaluated in the AMPLIFY and AMPLIFY-EXT studies, including 2676 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 10 mg twice daily, 3359 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 5 mg twice daily, and 840 patients exposed to ELIQUIS 2.5 mg twice daily. Common adverse reactions (≥1%) were gingival bleeding, epistaxis, contusion, hematuria, rectal hemorrhage, hematoma, menorrhagia, and hemoptysis. AMPLIFY Study The mean duration of exposure to ELIQUIS was 154 days and to enoxaparin/warfarin was 152 days in the AMPLIFY study. Adverse reactions related to bleeding occurred in 417 (15.6%) ELIQUIS-treated patients compared to 661 (24.6%) enoxaparin/warfarin-treated patients. The discontinuation rate due to bleeding events was 0.7% in the ELIQUIS-treated patients compared to 1.7% in enoxaparin/warfarin-treated patients in the AMPLIFY study. In the AMPLIFY study, ELIQUIS was statistically superior to enoxaparin/warfarin in the primary safety endpoint of major bleeding (relative risk 0.31, 95% CI [0.17, 0.55], P-value <0.0001). Bleeding results from the AMPLIFY study are summarized in Table 5. Table 5: Bleeding Results in the AMPLIFY Study ELIQUIS N=2676 n (%) Enoxaparin/Warfarin N=2689 n (%) Relative Risk (95% CI) * CRNM = clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Events associated with each endpoint were counted once per subject, but subjects may have contributed events to multiple endpoints. Major 15 (0.6) 49 (1.8) 0.31 (0.17, 0.55) p<0.0001 CRNM* 103 (3.9) 215 (8.0) Major + CRNM 115 (4.3) 261 (9.7) Minor 313 (11.7) 505 (18.8) All 402 (15.0) 676 (25.1) Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of patients in the AMPLIFY study are listed in Table 6. Table 6: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of Patients Treated for DVT and PE in the AMPLIFY Study ELIQUIS N=2676 n (%) Enoxaparin/Warfarin N=2689 n (%) Epistaxis 77 (2.9) 146 (5.4) Contusion 49 (1.8) 97 (3.6) Hematuria 46 (1.7) 102 (3.8) Menorrhagia 38 (1.4) 30 (1.1) Hematoma 35 (1.3) 76 (2.8) Hemoptysis 32 (1.2) 31 (1.2) Rectal hemorrhage 26 (1.0) 39 (1.5) Gingival bleeding 26 (1.0) 50 (1.9) AMPLIFY-EXT Study The mean duration of exposure to ELIQUIS was approximately 330 days and to placebo was 312 days in the AMPLIFY-EXT study. Adverse reactions related to bleeding occurred in 219 (13.3%) ELIQUIS-treated patients compared to 72 (8.7%) placebo-treated patients. The discontinuation rate due to bleeding events was approximately 1% in the ELIQUIS-treated patients compared to 0.4% in those patients in the placebo group in the AMPLIFY-EXT study. Bleeding results from the AMPLIFY-EXT study are summarized in Table 7. Table 7: Bleeding Results in the AMPLIFY-EXT Study ELIQUIS 2.5 mg bid N=840 n (%) ELIQUIS 5 mg bid N=811 n (%) Placebo N=826 n (%) * CRNM = clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Events associated with each endpoint were counted once per subject, but subjects may have contributed events to multiple endpoints. Major 2 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 4 (0.5) CRNM* 25 (3.0) 34 (4.2) 19 (2.3) Major + CRNM 27 (3.2) 35 (4.3) 22 (2.7) Minor 75 (8.9) 98 (12.1) 58 (7.0) All 94 (11.2) 121 (14.9) 74 (9.0) Adverse reactions occurring in ≥1% of patients in the AMPLIFY-EXT study are listed in Table 8. Table 8: Adverse Reactions Occurring in ≥1% of Patients Undergoing Extended Treatment for DVT and PE in the AMPLIFY-EXT Study ELIQUIS 2.5 mg bid N=840 n (%) ELIQUIS 5 mg bid N=811 n (%) Placebo N=826 n (%) Epistaxis 13 (1.5) 29 (3.6) 9 (1.1) Hematuria 12 (1.4) 17 (2.1) 9 (1.1) Hematoma 13 (1.5) 16 (2.0) 10 (1.2) Contusion 18 (2.1) 18 (2.2) 18 (2.2) Gingival bleeding 12 (1.4) 9 (1.1) 3 (0.4) Other Adverse Reactions Less common adverse reactions in ELIQUIS-treated patients in the AMPLIFY or AMPLIFY-EXT studies occurring at a frequency of ≥0.1% to <1%: Blood and lymphatic system disorders: hemorrhagic anemia Gastrointestinal disorders: hematochezia, hemorrhoidal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematemesis, melena, anal hemorrhage Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: wound hemorrhage, postprocedural hemorrhage, traumatic hematoma, periorbital hematoma Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: muscle hemorrhage Reproductive system and breast disorders: vaginal hemorrhage, metrorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, genital hemorrhage Vascular disorders : hemorrhage Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: ecchymosis, skin hemorrhage, petechiae Eye disorders: conjunctival hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage, eye hemorrhage Investigations: blood urine present, occult blood positive, occult blood, red blood cells urine positive General disorders and administration-site conditions: injection-site hematoma, vessel puncture-site hematoma
Apixaban is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp. Inhibitors of CYP3A4 and P-gp increase exposure to apixaban and increase the risk of bleeding. Inducers of CYP3A4 and P-gp decrease exposure to apixaban and increase the risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events. 7.1 Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors For patients receiving ELIQUIS 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily, the dose of ELIQUIS should be decreased by 50% when coadministered with drugs that are combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, ritonavir) [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . For patients receiving ELIQUIS at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily, avoid coadministration with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Clarithromycin Although clarithromycin is a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, pharmacokinetic data suggest that no dose adjustment is necessary with concomitant administration with ELIQUIS [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.2 Combined P-gp and Strong CYP3A4 Inducers Avoid concomitant use of ELIQUIS with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin, St. John’s wort) because such drugs will decrease exposure to apixaban [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 7.3 Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Agents Coadministration of antiplatelet agents, fibrinolytics, heparin, aspirin, and chronic NSAID use increases the risk of bleeding. APPRAISE-2, a placebo-controlled clinical trial of apixaban in high-risk, post-acute coronary syndrome patients treated with aspirin or the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel, was terminated early due to a higher rate of bleeding with apixaban compared to placebo. The rate of ISTH major bleeding was 2.8% per year with apixaban versus 0.6% per year with placebo in patients receiving single antiplatelet therapy and was 5.9% per year with apixaban versus 2.5% per year with placebo in those receiving dual antiplatelet therapy. In ARISTOTLE, concomitant use of aspirin increased the bleeding risk on ELIQUIS from 1.8% per year to 3.4% per year and concomitant use of aspirin and warfarin increased the bleeding risk from 2.7% per year to 4.6% per year. In this clinical trial, there was limited (2.3%) use of dual antiplatelet therapy with ELIQUIS.
Use In Specific Populations
8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category B There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of ELIQUIS in pregnant women. Treatment is likely to increase the risk of hemorrhage during pregnancy and delivery. ELIQUIS should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the mother and fetus. Treatment of pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice after implantation until the end of gestation resulted in fetal exposure to apixaban, but was not associated with increased risk for fetal malformations or toxicity. No maternal or fetal deaths were attributed to bleeding. Increased incidence of maternal bleeding was observed in mice, rats, and rabbits at maternal exposures that were 19, 4, and 1 times, respectively, the human exposure of unbound drug, based on area under plasma-concentration time curve (AUC) comparisons at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 10 mg (5 mg twice daily). 8.2 Labor and Delivery Safety and effectiveness of ELIQUIS during labor and delivery have not been studied in clinical trials. Consider the risks of bleeding and of stroke in using ELIQUIS in this setting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . Treatment of pregnant rats from implantation (gestation Day 7) to weaning (lactation Day 21) with apixaban at a dose of 1000 mg/kg (about 5 times the human exposure based on unbound apixaban) did not result in death of offspring or death of mother rats during labor in association with uterine bleeding. However, increased incidence of maternal bleeding, primarily during gestation, occurred at apixaban doses of ≥25 mg/kg, a dose corresponding to ≥1.3 times the human exposure. 8.3 Nursing Mothers It is unknown whether apixaban or its metabolites are excreted in human milk. Rats excrete apixaban in milk (12% of the maternal dose). Women should be instructed either to discontinue breastfeeding or to discontinue ELIQUIS therapy, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the total subjects in the ARISTOTLE and AVERROES clinical studies, >69% were 65 years of age and older, and >31% were 75 years of age and older. In the ADVANCE-1, ADVANCE-2, and ADVANCE-3 clinical studies, 50% of subjects were 65 years of age and older, while 16% were 75 years of age and older. In the AMPLIFY and AMPLIFY-EXT clinical studies, >32% of subjects were 65 years of age and older and >13% were 75 years of age and older. No clinically significant differences in safety or effectiveness were observed when comparing subjects in different age groups. 8.6 Renal Impairment Reduction of Risk of Stroke and Systemic Embolism in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation The recommended dose is 2.5 mg twice daily in patients with at least two of the following characteristics [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ] : age greater than or equal to 80 years body weight less than or equal to 60 kg serum creatinine greater than or equal to 1.5 mg/dL Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis. In patients with ESRD maintained on intermittent hemodialysis, administration of ELIQUIS at the usually recommended dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ] will result in concentrations of apixaban and pharmacodynamic activity similar to those observed in the ARISTOTLE study [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . It is not known whether these concentrations will lead to similar stroke reduction and bleeding risk in patients with ESRD on dialysis as was seen in ARISTOTLE. Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis Following Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery, and Treatment of DVT and PE and Reduction in the Risk of Recurrence of DVT and PE No dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment, including those with ESRD on dialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ] . Clinical efficacy and safety studies with ELIQUIS did not enroll patients with ESRD on dialysis or patients with a CrCl <15 mL/min; therefore, dosing recommendations are based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (anti-FXa activity) data in subjects with ESRD maintained on dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . 8.7 Hepatic Impairment No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A). Because patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) may have intrinsic coagulation abnormalities and there is limited clinical experience with ELIQUIS in these patients, dosing recommendations cannot be provided [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] . ELIQUIS is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ] .