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Indications And Usage

DYMISTA contains an H1-receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid, and is indicated for the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients 6 years of age and older who require treatment with both azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate for symptomatic relief. (1.1) 1.1 Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis DYMISTA nasal spray is indicated for the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients 6 years of age and older who require treatment with both azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate for symptomatic relief.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths

DYMISTA is a nasal spray suspension. •Each spray delivers a volume of 0.137 mL suspension containing 137 mcg of azelastine hydrochloride and 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate (137 mcg/50 mcg). DYMISTA: Nasal spray suspension delivers 137 mcg of azelastine hydrochloride and 50 mcg of fluticasone propionate (137 mcg/50 mcg) in each 0.137 mL spray. (3)

Contraindications

None. None. (4)

Warning and Cautions

•Somnolence: Avoid engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness such as driving or operating machinery when taking DYMISTA. (5.1) •Avoid concurrent use of alcohol or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants with DYMISTA because further decreased alertness and impairment of CNS performance may occur. (5.1) •Epistaxis, nasal ulcerations, nasal septal perforation, impaired wound healing, Candida albicans infection: Monitor patients periodically for signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa. Avoid use in patients with recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma. (5.2) •Glaucoma or posterior subcapsular cataracts: Monitor patients closely with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts. (5.3) •Potential worsening of existing tuberculosis; fungal, bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex. More serious or even fatal course of chickenpox or measles in susceptible patients. Use caution in patients with the above because of the potential for worsening of these infections. (5.4) •Hypercorticism and adrenal suppression with very high dosages or at the regular dosage in susceptible individuals. If such changes occur, discontinue DYMISTA slowly. (5.5) •Potential reduction in growth velocity in children. Monitor growth routinely in pediatric patients receiving DYMISTA. (5.7, 8.4) 5.1 Somnolence In clinical trials, the occurrence of somnolence has been reported in some patients (6 of 853 adult and adolescent patients and 2 of 416 children) taking DYMISTA in placebo controlled trials [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Patients should be cautioned against engaging in hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness and motor coordination such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle after administration of DYMISTA. Concurrent use of DYMISTA with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because additional reductions in alertness and additional impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ]. 5.2 Local Nasal Effects In clinical trials of 2 to 52 weeks' duration, epistaxis was observed more frequently in patients treated with DYMISTA than those who received placebo [see Adverse Reactions (6) ]. Instances of nasal ulceration and nasal septal perforation have been reported in patients following the intranasal application of corticosteroids. There were no instances of nasal ulceration or nasal septal perforation observed in clinical trials with DYMISTA. Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing, patients who have experienced recent nasal ulcers, nasal surgery, or nasal trauma should avoid use of DYMISTA until healing has occurred. In clinical trials with fluticasone propionate administered intranasally, the development of localized infections of the nose and pharynx with Candida albicans has occurred. When such an infection develops, it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuation of treatment with DYMISTA. Patients using DYMISTA over several months or longer should be examined periodically for evidence of Candida infection or other signs of adverse effects on the nasal mucosa. 5.3 Glaucoma and Cataracts Nasal and inhaled corticosteroids may result in the development of glaucoma and/or cataracts. Therefore, close monitoring is warranted in patients with a change in vision or with a history of increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and/or cataracts. Glaucoma and cataract formation were evaluated with intraocular pressure measurements and slit lamp examinations in a controlled 12-month study in 612 adolescent and adult patients aged 12 years and older with perennial allergic or vasomotor rhinitis (VMR). Of the 612 patients enrolled in the study, 405 were randomized to receive DYMISTA (1 spray per nostril twice daily) and 207 were randomized to receive fluticasone propionate nasal spray (2 sprays per nostril once daily). In the DYMISTA group, one patient had increased intraocular pressure at month 6. In addition, three patients had evidence of posterior subcapsular cataract at month 6 and one at month 12 (end of treatment). In the fluticasone propionate group, three patients had evidence of posterior subcapsular cataract at month 12 (end of treatment). 5.4 Immunosuppression Persons who are using drugs, such as corticosteroids, that suppress the immune system are more susceptible to infections than healthy individuals. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in susceptible children or adults using corticosteroids. In children or adults who have not had these diseases or been properly immunized, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. How the dose, route, and duration of corticosteroid administration affect the risk of developing a disseminated infection is not known. The contribution of the underlying disease and/or prior corticosteroid treatment to the risk is also not known. If exposed to chickenpox, prophylaxis with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) may be indicated. If exposed to measles, prophylaxis with pooled intramuscular immunoglobulin (IG) may be indicated. (See the respective package inserts for complete VZIG and IG prescribing information.) If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered. Corticosteroids should be used with caution, if at all, in patients with active or quiescent tuberculous infections of the respiratory tract; untreated local or systemic fungal or bacterial infections; systemic viral or parasitic infections; or ocular herpes simplex because of the potential for worsening of these infections. 5.5 Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Effects When intranasal steroids are used at higher than recommended dosages or in susceptible individuals at recommended dosages, systemic corticosteroid effects such as hypercorticism and adrenal suppression may appear. If such changes occur, the dosage of DYMISTA should be discontinued slowly, consistent with accepted procedures for discontinuing oral corticosteroid therapy. The concomitant use of intranasal corticosteroids with other inhaled corticosteroids could increase the risk of signs or symptoms of hypercorticism and/or suppression of the HPA axis. The replacement of a systemic corticosteroid with a topical corticosteroid can be accompanied by signs of adrenal insufficiency, and in addition some patients may experience symptoms of withdrawal, e.g., joint and/or muscular pain, lassitude, and depression. Patients previously treated for prolonged periods with systemic corticosteroids and transferred to topical corticosteroids should be carefully monitored for acute adrenal insufficiency in response to stress. In those patients who have asthma or other clinical conditions requiring long-term systemic corticosteroid treatment, too rapid a decrease in systemic corticosteroids may cause a severe exacerbation of their symptoms. 5.6 Use of Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors Ritonavir and other strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors can significantly increase plasma fluticasone propionate exposure, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, coadministration of DYMISTA and ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects. Use caution with the coadministration of DYMISTA and other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole [see Drug Interactions (7.2) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 5.7 Effect on Growth Corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity when administered to pediatric patients. Monitor the growth routinely of pediatric patients receiving DYMISTA [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ].

Adverse Reactions

Systemic and local corticosteroid use may result in the following: •Somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] •Local nasal effects, including epistaxis, nasal ulceration, nasal septal perforation, impaired wound healing, and Candida albicans infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] •Glaucoma and cataracts [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] •Immunosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] •Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis effects, including growth reduction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5 and 5.7), Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ] The most common adverse reactions (≥2% incidence) are: dysgeusia, epistaxis, and headache. (6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-888-939-6478 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect rates observed in practice. Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older The safety data described below in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older reflect exposure to DYMISTA in 853 patients (12 years of age and older; 36% male and 64% female) with seasonal allergic rhinitis in 3 double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials of 2-week duration. The racial distribution for the 3 clinical trials was 80% white, 16% black, 2% Asian, and 1% other. In the 3 placebo controlled clinical trials of 2-week duration, 3411 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were treated with 1 spray per nostril of DYMISTA, azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray, fluticasone propionate nasal spray, or placebo, twice daily. The azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate comparators use the same vehicle and device as DYMISTA and are not commercially marketed. Overall, adverse reactions were 16% in the DYMISTA treatment groups, 15% in the azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray groups, 13% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray groups, and 12% in the placebo groups. Overall, 1% of patients in both the DYMISTA and placebo groups discontinued due to adverse reactions. Table 1 contains adverse reactions reported with frequencies greater than or equal to 2% and more frequently than placebo in patients treated with DYMISTA in the seasonal allergic rhinitis controlled clinical trials. Table 1. Adverse Reactions with ≥ 2% Incidence and More Frequently than Placebo in Placebo-Controlled Trials of 2 Weeks Duration with DYMISTA in Adult and Adolescent Patients with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis 1 spray per nostril twice daily DYMISTA (N = 853) Safety population N = 853, intent-to-treat population N = 848 Azelastine Hydrochloride Nasal Spray Not commercially marketed (N = 851) Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (N = 846) Vehicle Placebo (N = 861) Dysgeusia 30(4%) 44(5%) 4(1%) 2(<1%) Headache 18(2%) 20(2%) 20(2%) 10(1%) Epistaxis 16(2%) 14(2%) 14(2%) 15(2%) In the above trials, somnolence was reported in <1% of patients treated with DYMISTA (6 of 853) or vehicle placebo (1 of 861) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Pediatric Patients 6-11 Years of Age The safety data described below in children 6-11 years of age reflect exposure to DYMISTA in 152 patients (6-11 years of age; 57% male and 43% female) with seasonal allergic rhinitis in one double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 2-week duration. The racial distribution for the clinical trial was 69% white, 31% black, 2% Asian and 2% other. In the placebo-controlled clinical trial of 2-week duration, patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were treated with 1 spray per nostril of DYMISTA or placebo, twice daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 16% in the DYMISTA treatment group, and 12% in the placebo group. Overall, 1% of patients in both the DYMISTA and placebo groups discontinued due to adverse reactions. Table 2 contains adverse reactions reported with frequencies greater than or equal to 2% and more frequently than placebo in patients treated with DYMISTA in the seasonal allergic rhinitis controlled clinical trial. Table 2. Adverse Reactions with ≥2% Incidence and More Frequently than Placebo in Placebo-Controlled Trials of 2 Weeks Duration with DYMISTA in Children 6 to 11 Years of Age with Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis 1 spray per nostril twice daily DYMISTA (N = 152) Safety population N = 152, intent-to-treat population N = 152 Vehicle Placebo (N = 152) Dysgeusia 6 (4%) 0 (0%) Epistaxis 6 (4%) 4 (3%) In the above trial, somnolence was not reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Long-Term (12-Month) Safety Trial in Adults and Adolescents 12 Years of Age and Older In the 12-month open-label, active-controlled clinical trial, 404 Asian patients (240 males and 164 females) with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with DYMISTA, 1 spray per nostril twice daily. In the 12-month, open-label, active-controlled, long-term safety trial in adults and adolescents 12 years of age and older, 404 patients with perennial allergic rhinitis or vasomotor rhinitis were treated with DYMISTA 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 207 patients were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 2 sprays per nostril once daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 47% in the DYMISTA treatment group and 44% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥ 2%) with DYMISTA were headache, pyrexia, cough, nasal congestion, rhinitis, dysgeusia, viral infection, upper respiratory tract infection, pharyngitis, pain, diarrhea, and epistaxis. In the DYMISTA treatment group, 7 patients (2%) had mild epistaxis and 1 patient (<1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 1 patient (<1%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no nasal ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Eleven of 404 patients (3%) treated with DYMISTA and 6 of 207 patients (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse events. Long-Term (3-Month) Safety Trial in Pediatric Patients 6-11 Years of Age In the 3-month open label active-controlled clinical trial, 264 patients (60% male, 40% female) (80% white, 19% black, 4% Asian and 2% other) with allergic rhinitis were treated with DYMISTA, 1 spray per nostril twice daily. In the 3-month, open label, active-controlled, safety trial in pediatric patients 6-11 years of age 264 patients (128 patients ≥6 to <9 years of age, and 136 patients ≥9 to <12 years of age) with allergic rhinitis (based on the Investigator’s assessment) were treated with DYMISTA, 1 spray per nostril twice daily and 89 patients (44 patients ≥6 to <9 years of age, and 45 patients ≥9 to <12 years of age) were treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily. Overall, adverse reactions were 40% in the DYMISTA treatment group and 36% in the fluticasone propionate nasal spray group. The most frequently reported adverse reactions (≥2%) with DYMISTA were epistaxis, headache, oropharyngeal pain, vomiting, upper abdominal pain, cough, pyrexia, otitis media, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhea, nausea, otitis externa, and urticaria. In the DYMISTA treatment group 23 patients (9%) had mild epistaxis and 3 patients (1%) had moderate epistaxis. In the fluticasone propionate nasal spray treatment group 8 patients (9%) had mild epistaxis. No patients had reports of severe epistaxis. Focused nasal examinations were performed and no ulcerations or septal perforations were observed. Four of 264 patients (2%) treated with DYMISTA and 3 of 89 (3%) treated with fluticasone propionate nasal spray discontinued from the trial due to adverse events. There were two reports of somnolence, one severe, among children taking DYMISTA [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following spontaneous adverse events have been reported with DYMISTA or one of the components (azelastine and fluticasone). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiac Disorders: atrial fibrillation, increased heart rate, palpitations Eye Disorder: blurred vision, cataracts, conjunctivitis, dryness and irritation, eye swelling, glaucoma, increased intraocular pressure, vision abnormal, xerophthalmia Gastrointestinal Disorders: nausea, vomiting General Disorders and Administration Site Condition: aches and pain, application site irritation, chest pain, edema of face and tongue, fatigue, tolerance Immune System Disorders: anaphylaxis/anaphylactoid reactions which in rare instances were severe, hypersensitivity reactions Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: growth suppression [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4) ] Nervous System Disorders: disturbance or loss of smell and/ or taste, dizziness, involuntary muscle contractions, paresthesia, parosmia Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety, confusion, nervousness Renal and Urinary Disorders: urinary retention Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: bronchospasm, cough, dysphonia, dyspnea, hoarseness, nasal septal perforation, nasal discomfort, nasal dryness, nasal sores, nasal ulcer, sore throat, throat dryness and irritation, voice changes, wheezing Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorder: angioedema, erythema, face swelling, pruritus, rash, urticaria Vascular Disorder: hypertension

Drug Interactions

No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with DYMISTA. The drug interactions of the combination are expected to reflect those of the individual components. •Potent inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4: May increase blood levels of fluticasone propionate. •Ritonavir: Coadministration is not recommended. (5.6, 7.2) •Other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, such as ketoconazole: use caution with coadministration. (5.6, 7.2) 7.1 Central Nervous System Depressants Concurrent use of DYMISTA with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants should be avoided because somnolence and impairment of central nervous system performance may occur [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 7.2 Cytochrome P450 3A4 Ritonavir (a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor) significantly increased plasma fluticasone propionate exposure following administration of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray, resulting in significantly reduced serum cortisol concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. During postmarketing use, there have been reports of clinically significant drug interactions in patients receiving fluticasone propionate and ritonavir, resulting in systemic corticosteroid effects including Cushing syndrome and adrenal suppression. Therefore, coadministration of fluticasone propionate and ritonavir is not recommended unless the potential benefit to the patient outweighs the risk of systemic corticosteroid side effects. Ketoconazole (also a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor), administered in multiple 200 mg doses to steady-state, increased plasma exposure of fluticasone propionate, reduced plasma cortisol AUC, but had no effect on urinary excretion of cortisol, following administration of a single 1000 mcg dose of fluticasone propionate by oral inhalation route. Caution should be exercised when DYMISTA is coadministered with ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

Use In Specific Populations

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Limited data from postmarketing experience with DYMISTA in pregnant women have not identified any drug associated risks of miscarriage, birth defects, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. The individual components of DYMISTA have been marketed for decades. While the data regarding the use of nasal preparations of fluticasone propionate in pregnancy are limited, data from clinical studies of inhaled fluticasone propionate do not indicate an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Animal reproduction studies with DYMISTA are not available; however, studies are available with its individual components, azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate. In animal reproduction studies, there was no evidence of fetal harm in animals at oral doses of azelastine hydrochloride approximately 10 times the clinical daily dose. Oral administration of azelastine hydrochloride to pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, during the period of organogenesis, produced developmental toxicity that included structural abnormalities, decreased embryo-fetal survival, and decreased fetal body weights at doses 530 times and higher than the maximum recommended human daily intranasal dose (MRHDID) of 0.548 mg. However, the relevance of these findings in animals to pregnant women was considered questionable based upon the high animal to human dose multiple. In animal reproduction studies, fluticasone propionate administered via nose-only inhalation to rats decreased fetal body weight, but did not induce teratogenicity at a maternal toxic dose less than the MRHDID on a mcg/m2 basis. Teratogenicity, characteristic of corticosteroids, decreased fetal body weight and/or skeletal variations, in rats, mice, and rabbits were observed with subcutaneously administered maternal toxic doses of fluticasone propionate less than the MRHDID of 200 mcg on a mcg/m2 basis (see Data). Experience with corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroids than humans. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Azelastine Hydrochloride In an embryo-fetal development study in mice dosed during the period of organogenesis, azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death, structural abnormalities (cleft palate; short or absent tail; fused, absent or branched ribs), delayed ossification, and decreased fetal weight at approximately 610 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day), which also caused maternal toxicity as evidenced by decreased maternal body weight. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice at approximately 25 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day). In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rats dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 17, azelastine hydrochloride caused structural abnormalities (oligo-and brachydactylia), delayed ossification, and skeletal variations, in the absence of maternal toxicity, at approximately 530 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Azelastine hydrochloride caused embryo-fetal death and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 1200 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 68.6 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 55 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day). In an embryo-fetal development study in pregnant rabbits dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 6 to 18, azelastine hydrochloride caused abortion, delayed ossification and decreased fetal weight and severe maternal toxicity at approximately 1100 times the MRHDID in adults (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred at approximately 10 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis at a maternal oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day). In a prenatal and postnatal development study in pregnant rats dosed from late in the gestation period and through the lactation period from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21, azelastine hydrochloride produced no adverse developmental effects on pups at maternal doses up to approximately 530 times the MRHDID (on mg/m2 basis at a maternal dose of 30 mg/kg/day). Fluticasone Propionate In embryofetal development studies with pregnant rats and mice dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate was teratogenic in both species. Omphalocele, decreased body weight, and skeletal variations were observed in rat fetuses, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately 5 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 100 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rats at approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 30 mcg/kg/day). Cleft palate and fetal skeletal variations were observed in mouse fetuses at a dose approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 45 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in mice with a dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 15 mcg/kg/day). In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rats dosed by the nose-only inhalation route throughout the period of organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced decreased fetal body weights and skeletal variations, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at a dose approximately 1 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal nose-only inhalation dose of 25.7 mcg/kg/day); however, there was no evidence of teratogenicity. Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rats with a dose approximately 0.25 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal nose-only inhalation dose of 5.5 mcg/kg/day). In an embryofetal development study in pregnant rabbits that were dosed by the subcutaneous route throughout organogenesis, fluticasone propionate produced reductions of fetal body weights, in the presence of maternal toxicity, at doses approximately 0.06 times the MRHDID and higher (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.57 mcg/kg/day). Teratogenicity was evident based upon a finding of cleft palate for 1 fetus at dose approximately 0.4 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 4 mcg/kg/day). Neither fetal nor maternal effects occurred in rabbits with a dose approximately 0.01 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.08 mcg/kg/day). Fluticasone propionate crossed the placenta following subcutaneous administration to mice and rats and oral administration to rabbits. In a pre- and post-natal development study in pregnant rats dosed from late gestation through delivery and lactation (Gestation Day 17 to Postpartum Day 22), fluticasone propionate was not associated with decreases in pup body weight, and had no effects on developmental landmarks, learning, memory, reflexes, or fertility at doses up to 2 times the MRHDID (on a mg/m2 basis with maternal subcutaneous doses up to 50 mcg/kg/day). 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no available data on the presence of azelastine hydrochloride or fluticasone propionate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Breastfed infants should be monitored for signs of milk rejection during DYMISTA use by lactating women (see Clinical Considerations). Fluticasone propionate is present in rat milk (see Data). Other corticosteroids have been detected in human milk. However, fluticasone propionate concentrations in plasma after intranasal therapeutic doses are low and therefore concentrations in human breast milk are likely to be correspondingly low [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DYMISTA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from DYMISTA or from the underlying maternal condition. Clinical Considerations Monitoring for Adverse Reactions Breastfed infants of lactating women treated with DYMISTA should be monitored for possible signs of milk rejection related to the bitter taste of azelastine hydrochloride. Data Subcutaneous administration of 10 mcg/kg of tritiated fluticasone propionate to lactating rats resulted in measurable radioactivity in the milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use Use of DYMISTA for seasonal allergic rhinitis in pediatric patients 6 to 11 years of age is supported by safety and efficacy data from clinical studies (416 patients 6 to 11 years of age with allergic rhinitis were treated with DYMISTA in controlled clinical trials) and the established efficacy and safety of azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray and fluticasone propionate nasal spray in this age group [see Adverse Reactions(6.1) and Clinical Studies (14) ]. Sixty-one patients ages 4-5 years of age were treated with DYMISTA in the pediatric studies described above. Safety findings in children 4-5 years of age were similar to those in children 6-11 years of age, but efficacy was not established. Safety and effectiveness of DYMISTA has not been studied in pediatric patients below the age of 4 years. Controlled clinical studies have shown that intranasal corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. This effect has been observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with intranasal corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch-up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with intranasal corticosteroids has not been adequately studied. The growth of pediatric patients receiving intranasal corticosteroids, including DYMISTA, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against the clinical benefits obtained and the risks/benefits of treatment alternatives. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical trials of DYMISTA did not include sufficient numbers of patients 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.