This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Doxazosin Mesylate safely and effectively. Before taking Doxazosin Mesylate please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Doxazosin Mesylate.
Indications And Usage
Doxazosin Mesylate is an alpha 1 adrenergic antagonist indicated for: Signs and symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Treatment of Hypertension 1.1 Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Doxazosin Mesylate tablet is indicated for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of BPH. 1.2 Hypertension Doxazosin Mesylate tablet is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including this drug. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program's Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy. Doxazosin Mesylate tablet may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensives.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
Tablets (scored): 1 mg (white), 2 mg (yellow), 4 mg (orange) or 8 mg (green). Tablets: 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, 8 mg.
The use of Doxazosin Mesylate tablet is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to doxazosin, other quinazolines (e.g., prazosin, terazosin), or any of its components. Hypersensitivity to doxazosin, other quinazolines, or any other ingredient in Doxazosin Mesylate. ( 4 )
Warning and Cautions
Postural hypotension with or without syncope may occur. ( 5.1 ) Risk of Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome during cataract surgery. ( 5.2 ) Screen for the presence of prostate cancer prior to treatment for BPH and at regular intervals afterwards. ( 5.3 ) 5.1 Postural Hypotension Postural hypotension with or without symptoms (e.g., dizziness) may develop within a few hours following administration of Doxazosin Mesylate. However, infrequently, symptomatic postural hypotension has also been reported later than a few hours after dosing. As with other alpha-blockers, there is a potential for syncope, especially after the initial dose or after an increase in dosage strength. Advise patient how to avoid symptoms resulting from postural hypotension and what measures to take should they develop. Concomitant administration of Doxazosin Mesylate with a PDE-5 inhibitor can result in additive blood pressure lowering effects and symptomatic hypotension. 5.2 Cataract Surgery Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome (IFIS) has been observed during cataract surgery in some patients on or previously treated with alpha1 blockers. This variant of small pupil syndrome is characterized by the combination of a flaccid iris that billows in response to intraoperative irrigation currents, progressive intraoperative miosis despite preoperative dilation with standard mydriatic drugs, and potential prolapse of the iris toward the phacoemulsification incisions. The patient's surgeon should be prepared for possible modifications to their surgical technique, such as the utilization of iris hooks, iris dilator rings, or viscoelastic substances. There does not appear to be a benefit of stopping alpha1 blocker therapy prior to cataract surgery. 5.3 Prostate Cancer Carcinoma of the prostate causes many of the symptoms associated with BPH and the two disorders frequently co-exist. Carcinoma of the prostate should therefore be ruled out prior to commencing therapy with Doxazosin Mesylate tablet for the treatment of BPH. 5.4 Priapism Alpha1 antagonists, including doxazosin, have been associated with priapism (painful penile erection, sustained for hours and unrelieved by sexual intercourse or masturbation). This condition can lead to permanent impotence if not promptly treated.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions from clinical trials are Fatigue, malaise, hypotension, and dizziness. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Greenstone LLC Professional Information Services at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) The incidence of adverse events has been ascertained from worldwide clinical trials in 965 BPH patients. The incidence rates presented below (Table 2) are based on combined data from seven placebo-controlled trials involving once-daily administration of Doxazosin Mesylate tablet in doses of 1 to 16 mg in hypertensives and 0.5 to 8 mg in normotensives. Adverse reactions occurring more than 1% more frequently in BPH patients treated with Doxazosin Mesylate vs placebo are summarized in Table 1. Table 1. Adverse Reactions Occurring more than 1% More Frequently in BPH Patients Treated with Doxazosin Mesylate Versus Placebo BODY SYSTEM Doxazosin Mesylate N=665 Placebo N=300 NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS Dizziness Includes vertigo 15.6% 9.0% Somnolence 3.0% 1.0% CARDIAC DISORDERS Hypotension 1.7% 0% RESPIRATORY, THORACIC AND MEDIASTINAL DISORDERS Dyspnoea 2.6% 0.3% GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS Dry Mouth 1.4% 0.3% GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS Fatigue 8.0% 1.7% Oedema 2.7% 0.7% Other adverse reactions occurring less than 1% more frequently in BPH patients treated with Doxazosin Mesylate vs placebo but plausibly related to Doxazosin Mesylate include: palpitations. Hypertension Doxazosin Mesylate has been administered to approximately 4000 hypertensive patients in clinical trials, of whom 1679 were included in the hypertension clinical development program. In placebo-controlled studies, adverse events occurred in 49% and 40% of patients in the doxazosin and placebo groups, respectively, and led to discontinuation in 2% of patients in each group. Adverse reactions occurring more than 1% more frequently in hypertensive patients treated with Doxazosin Mesylate vs placebo are summarized in Table 1. Postural effects and edema appeared to be dose-related. The prevalence rates presented below are based on combined data from placebo-controlled studies involving once-daily administration of doxazosin at doses ranging from 1 to 16 mg. Table 2. Adverse Reactions Occurring more than 1% More Frequently in Hypertensive Patients Treated with Doxazosin Mesylate versus Placebo BODY SYSTEM Doxazosin Mesylate N=339 Placebo N=336 NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS Dizziness 19% 9% Somnolence 5% 1% RESPIRATORY, THORACIC AND MEDIASTINAL DISORDERS Rhinitis 3% 1% RENAL AND URINARY DISORDERS Polyuria 2% 0% REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AND BREAST DISORDERS GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS Fatigue / Malaise 12% 6% Other adverse reactions occurring less than 1% more frequently in hypertensive patients treated with Doxazosin Mesylate vs placebo but plausibly related to Doxazosin Mesylate use include vertigo, hypotension, hot flushes, epistaxis and oedema. Doxazosin Mesylate has been associated with decreases in white blood cell counts Laboratory changes observed in clinical studies Leukopenia/Neutropenia: Decreases in mean white blood cell (WBC) and mean neutrophil count were observed in controlled clinical trials of hypertensive patients receiving Doxazosin Mesylate. In cases where follow-up was available, WBC and neutrophil counts returned to normal after discontinuation of Doxazosin Mesylate. No patients became symptomatic as a result of the low WBC or neutrophil counts. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Doxazosin Mesylate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. In post-marketing experience, the following additional adverse reactions have been reported: Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia; Immune System Disorders: allergic reaction; Nervous System Disorders: hypoesthesia; Eye Disorders: Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome [see Warnings and precautions (5.4) ] ; Cardiac Disorders: bradycardia; Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: bronchospasm aggravated; Gastrointestinal Disorders: vomiting; Hepatobiliary Disorders: cholestasis, hepatitis cholestatic; Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: urticaria; Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: muscle cramps, muscle weakness; Renal and Urinary Disorders: hematuria, micturition disorder, micturition frequency, nocturia; Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia, priapism.
Strong cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A inhibitors may increase exposure to doxazosin and increased risk of hypotension. ( 7.1 ) Concomitant administration of Doxazosin Mesylate with a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor can result in additive blood pressure lowering effects and symptomatic hypotension. ( 7.2 ) 7.1 CYP 3A Inhibitors In vitro studies suggest that doxazosin is a substrate of CYP 3A4. Strong CYP3A inhibitors may increase exposure to doxazosin. Monitor blood pressure and for symptoms of hypotension when Doxazosin Mesylate is used concomitantly with strong CYP3A inhibitors [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 7.2 Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors Concomitant administration of Doxazosin Mesylate with a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor can result in additive blood pressure lowering effects and symptomatic hypotension. Monitor blood pressure and for symptoms of hypotension [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Use In Specific Populations
Hepatic Impairment: Monitor for hypotension. ( 8.6 , 12.3 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary The limited available data with Doxazosin Mesylate in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. However, untreated hypertension during pregnancy can result in increased maternal risks [see Clinical Considerations ] . In animal reproduction studies, no adverse developmental effects were observed when doxazosin was orally administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 41 and 20 mg/kg, respectively (exposures in rabbits and rats were 10 and 4 times, respectively, the human AUC exposures with a 12 mg/day therapeutic dose). A dosage regimen of 82 mg/kg/day in the rabbit was associated with reduced fetal survival [see Data ]. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2–4% and 15–20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Data Animal Data Radioactivity was found to cross the placenta following oral administration of labelled doxazosin to pregnant rats. Studies in pregnant rabbits and rats at daily oral doses of up to 41 and 20 mg/kg, respectively (plasma drug concentrations of 10 and 4 times, respectively, the human AUC exposures with a 12 mg/day therapeutic dose), have revealed no evidence of adverse developmental effects. A dosage regimen of 82 mg/kg/day in the rabbit was associated with reduced fetal survival. In peri- and postnatal studies in rats, postnatal development at maternal doses of 40 or 50 mg/kg/day of doxazosin (about 8 times human AUC exposure with a 12 mg/day therapeutic dose) was delayed, as evidenced by slower body weight gain and slightly later appearance of anatomical features and reflexes. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is limited information on the presence of Doxazosin Mesylate in human milk [see Data ]. There is no information on the effects of Doxazosin Mesylate on the breastfeed infant or the effects on milk production. Data A single case study reports that Doxazosin Mesylate is present in human milk, which resulted in an infant dose of less than 1% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio of 0.1. However, these data are insufficient to confirm the presence of Doxazosin Mesylate in human milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Doxazosin Mesylate have not been established in children. 8.5 Geriatric Use Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) The safety and effectiveness profile of Doxazosin Mesylate tablet was similar in the elderly (age ≥ 65 years) and younger (age < 65 years) patients. Hypertension Clinical studies of Doxazosin Mesylate tablet did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment Doxazosin Mesylate is extensively metabolized in the liver. Hepatic impairment is expected to increase exposure to doxazosin. Use of Doxazosin Mesylate in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) is not recommended. Monitor blood pressure and for symptoms of hypotension in patients with lesser degrees of hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B) [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].