This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Contrave safely and effectively. Before taking Contrave please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Contrave.
WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS SUICIDALITY AND ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS CONTRAVE ® is not approved for use in the treatment of major depressive disorder or other psychiatric disorders. CONTRAVE contains bupropion, the same active ingredient as some antidepressant medications (including, but not limited to, WELLBUTRIN, WELLBUTRIN SR, WELLBUTRIN XL, and APLENZIN). Antidepressants increased the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term trials. These trials did not show an increase in the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior with antidepressant use in subjects over age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressant use in subjects aged 65 and older. In patients of all ages who are started on CONTRAVE, monitor closely for worsening, and for the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Advise families and caregivers of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. CONTRAVE is not approved for use in pediatric patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4 )] . WARNING: SUICIDAL THOUGHTS AND BEHAVIORS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning Increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults taking antidepressants for major depressive disorder and other psychiatric disorders. ( 5.1 ) Monitor for worsening and emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. ( 5.1 ) CONTRAVE has not been studied in pediatric patients. ( 5.1 )
Indications And Usage
CONTRAVE is indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of: 30 kg/m 2 or greater (obese) or 27 kg/m 2 or greater (overweight) in the presence of at least one weight-related comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia). Limitations of Use: The effect of CONTRAVE on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been established. The safety and effectiveness of CONTRAVE in combination with other products intended for weight loss, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and herbal preparations, have not been established. CONTRAVE is a combination of naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and bupropion, an aminoketone antidepressant, indicated as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity for chronic weight management in adults with an initial body mass index (BMI) of: 30 kg/m 2 or greater (obese) or 27 kg/m 2 or greater (overweight) in the presence of at least one weight-related comorbidity (e.g., hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemia). ( 1 ) Limitations of Use: The effect of CONTRAVE on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has not been established. ( 1 ) The safety and effectiveness of CONTRAVE in combination with other products intended for weight loss, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and herbal preparations, have not been established. ( 1 )
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Dosage And Administration
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
CONTRAVE extended-release tri-layer tablets, 8 mg/90 mg, are blue, round, bi-convex, film-coated, and debossed with "NB-890" on one side. Extended-Release Tablets: 8 mg naltrexone HCl /90 mg bupropion HCl ( 3 )
CONTRAVE is contraindicated in Uncontrolled hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] Seizure disorder or a history of seizures [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Use of other bupropion-containing products (including, but not limited to, WELLBUTRIN, WELLBUTRIN SR, WELLBUTRIN XL, APLENZIN and ZYBAN) Bulimia or anorexia nervosa, which increase the risk for seizure [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Chronic opioid or opiate agonist (e.g., methadone) or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine) use, or acute opiate withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 ) and Drug Interactions ( 7.2 )] Patients undergoing an abrupt discontinuation of alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and antiepileptic drugs [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ) and Drug Interactions ( 7.7 )] Concomitant administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI). At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of MAOI and initiation of treatment with CONTRAVE. There is an increased risk of hypertensive reactions when CONTRAVE is used concomitantly with MAOIs. Starting CONTRAVE in a patient treated with reversible MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue is also contraindicated [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 ), Drug Interactions ( 7.1 )] Known allergy to bupropion, naltrexone or any other component of CONTRAVE. Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported with bupropion [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] Pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] Uncontrolled hypertension ( 4 ) Seizure disorders, anorexia nervosa or bulimia, or undergoing abrupt discontinuation of alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and antiepileptic drugs ( 4 ) Use of other bupropion-containing products ( 4 ) Chronic opioid use ( 4 ) During or within 14 days of taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) ( 4 ) Known allergy to any of the ingredients in CONTRAVE ( 4 ) Pregnancy ( 4 )
Warning and Cautions
Suicidal Behavior and Ideation: Monitor for depression or suicidal thoughts. Discontinue CONTRAVE if symptoms develop. ( 5.1 ) Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events During Smoking Cessation: Postmarketing reports of serious or clinically significant neuropsychiatric adverse events have included changes in mood (including depression and mania), psychosis, hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, homicidal ideation, aggression, hostility, agitation, anxiety, and panic, as well as suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Observe patients taking CONTRAVE for the occurrence of such symptoms and instruct them to discontinue CONTRAVE and contact a healthcare provider if they experience such adverse events. ( 5.2 ) Risk of seizure may be minimized by adhering to the recommended dosing schedule and avoiding coadministration with high-fat meal. ( 5.3 ) Increase in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate: Monitor blood pressure and heart rate in all patients, especially those with cardiac or cerebrovascular disease. ( 5.5 ) Hepatotoxicity: Cases of hepatitis and clinically significant liver dysfunction observed with naltrexone exposure. ( 5.7 ) Angle-closure glaucoma: Angle-closure glaucoma has occurred in patients with untreated anatomically narrow angles treated with antidepressants. ( 5.9 ) Use of Antidiabetic Medications: Weight loss may cause hypoglycemia. Monitor blood glucose. ( 5.10 ) 5.1 Suicidal Behavior and Ideation CONTRAVE contains bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor that is similar to some drugs used for the treatment of depression; therefore, the following precautions pertaining to these products should be considered when treating patients with CONTRAVE. Patients with major depressive disorder, both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide. There has been a long-standing concern that antidepressants may have a role in inducing worsening of depression and the emergence of suicidality in certain patients during the early phases of treatment. In placebo-controlled clinical trials with CONTRAVE for the treatment of obesity in adult patients, no suicides or suicide attempts were reported in studies up to 56 weeks duration with CONTRAVE (equivalent to bupropion doses of 360 mg/day). In these same studies, suicidal ideation was reported by 3 (0.20%) of 1,515 patients treated with placebo compared with 1 (0.03%) of 3,239 treated with CONTRAVE. Pooled analyses of short-term placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and others) show that these drugs increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults (ages 18 to 24) with major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Short-term clinical trials did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction with antidepressants compared with placebo in adults aged 65 and older. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant drugs in children and adolescents with MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 24 short-term trials of nine antidepressant drugs in over 4,400 patients. The pooled analyses of placebo-controlled trials in adults with MDD or other psychiatric disorders included a total of 295 short-term trials (median duration of two months) of 11 antidepressant drugs in over 77,000 patients. There was considerable variation in risk of suicidality among drugs, but a tendency toward an increase in the younger patients for almost all drugs studied. There were differences in absolute risk of suicidality across the different indications, with the highest incidence in MDD. The risk differences (drug vs placebo), however, were relatively stable within age strata and across indications. These risk differences (drug-placebo difference in the number of cases of suicidality per 1,000 patients treated) are provided in Table 2 . Table 2. Risk Differences in the Number of Suicidality Cases by Age Group in the Pooled Placebo-Controlled Trials of Antidepressants in Pediatric and Adult Subjects Age Range Drug-Placebo Difference in Number of Cases of Suicidality per 1,000 Patients Treated Increases Compared to Placebo <18 14 additional cases 18 to 24 5 additional cases Decreases Compared to Placebo 25 to 64 1 fewer case ≥65 6 fewer cases No suicides occurred in any of the antidepressant pediatric trials. There were suicides in the adult antidepressant trials, but the number was not sufficient to reach any conclusion about drug effect on suicide. It is unknown whether the suicidality risk extends to longer-term use, i.e., beyond several months. However, there is substantial evidence from placebo-controlled trials in adults with depression that the use of antidepressants can delay the recurrence of depression. All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases. This warning applies to CONTRAVE because one of its components, bupropion, is a member of an antidepressant class. The following symptoms, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, insomnia, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, impulsivity, akathisia (psychomotor restlessness), hypomania, and mania, have been reported in adult and pediatric patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder as well as for other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric. Although a causal link between the emergence of such symptoms and either the worsening of depression and/or the emergence of suicidal impulses has not been established, there is concern that such symptoms may represent precursors to emerging suicidality. Consideration should be given to changing the therapeutic regimen, including possibly discontinuing the medication, in patients whose depression is persistently worse, or who are experiencing emergent suicidality or symptoms that might be precursors to worsening depression or suicidality, especially if these symptoms are severe, abrupt in onset, or were not part of the patient’s presenting symptoms. Families and caregivers of patients being treated with antidepressants for major depressive disorder or other indications, both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric, should be alerted about the need to monitor patients for the emergence of anxiety, agitation, irritability, unusual changes in behavior, and the other symptoms described above, as well as the emergence of suicidality, and to report such symptoms immediately to healthcare providers. Such monitoring should include daily observation by families and caregivers. Prescriptions for CONTRAVE should be written for the smallest quantity of tablets consistent with good patient management, in order to reduce the risk of overdose. 5.2 Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events and Suicide Risk in Smoking Cessation Treatment CONTRAVE is not approved for smoking cessation treatment, but serious neuropsychiatric adverse events have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation. These postmarketing reports have included changes in mood (including depression and mania), psychosis, hallucinations, paranoia, delusions, homicidal ideation, aggression, hostility, agitation, anxiety, and panic, as well as suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Some patients who stopped smoking may have been experiencing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, including depressed mood. Depression, rarely including suicidal ideation, has been reported in smokers undergoing a smoking cessation attempt without medication. However, some of these adverse events occurred in patients taking bupropion who continued to smoke. Neuropsychiatric adverse events occurred in patients without and with pre-existing psychiatric disease; some patients experienced worsening of their psychiatric illnesses. Observe patients for the occurrence of neuropsychiatric adverse events. Advise patients and caregivers that the patient should stop taking CONTRAVE and contact a healthcare provider immediately if agitation, depressed mood, or changes in behavior or thinking that are not typical for the patient are observed, or if the patient develops suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior. In many postmarketing cases, resolution of symptoms after discontinuation of bupropion was reported. However, the symptoms persisted in some cases, therefore, ongoing monitoring and supportive care should be provided until symptoms resolve. Depression, suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation have been reported in the postmarketing experience with naltrexone used in the treatment of opioid dependence. No causal relationship has been demonstrated. 5.3 Seizures Bupropion, a component of CONTRAVE, can cause seizures. The risk of seizure is dose-related. The incidence of seizure in patients receiving CONTRAVE in clinical trials was approximately 0.1% vs 0% on placebo. CONTRAVE should be discontinued and not restarted in patients who experience a seizure while being treated with CONTRAVE. The risk of seizures is also related to patient factors, clinical situations, and concomitant medications that lower the seizure threshold. Consider these risks before initiating treatment with CONTRAVE. CONTRAVE is contraindicated in patients with a seizure disorder, current or prior diagnosis of anorexia nervosa or bulimia, or undergoing abrupt discontinuation of alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and antiepileptic drugs. Caution should be used when prescribing CONTRAVE to patients with predisposing factors that may increase the risk of seizure including: history of head trauma or prior seizure, severe stroke, arteriovenous malformation, central nervous system tumor or infection, or metabolic disorders (e.g., hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, severe hepatic impairment, and hypoxia) excessive use of alcohol or sedatives, addiction to cocaine or stimulants, or withdrawal from sedatives patients with diabetes treated with insulin and/or oral diabetic medications (sulfonylureas and meglitinides) that may cause hypoglycemia concomitant administration of medications that may lower the seizure threshold, including other bupropion products, antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, theophylline, systemic steroids Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of Seizure: Clinical experience with bupropion suggests that the risk of seizure may be minimized by adhering to the recommended dosing recommendations [see Dosage and Administration ( 2 )] , in particular: the total daily dose of CONTRAVE does not exceed 360 mg of the bupropion component (i.e., four tablets per day) the daily dose is administered in divided doses (twice daily) the dose is escalated gradually no more than two tablets are taken at one time coadministration of CONTRAVE with high-fat meals is avoided [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] if a dose is missed, a patient should wait until the next scheduled dose to resume the regular dosing schedule 5.4 Patients Receiving Opioid Analgesics Vulnerability to Opioid Overdose: CONTRAVE should not be administered to patients receiving chronic opioids, due to the naltrexone component, which is an opioid receptor antagonist [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . If chronic opiate therapy is required, CONTRAVE treatment should be stopped. In patients requiring intermittent opiate treatment, CONTRAVE therapy should be temporarily discontinued and lower doses of opioids may be needed. Patients should be alerted that they may be more sensitive to opioids, even at lower doses, after CONTRAVE treatment is discontinued. An attempt by a patient to overcome any naltrexone opioid blockade by administering large amounts of exogenous opioids is especially dangerous and may lead to a fatal overdose or life-threatening opioid intoxication (e.g., respiratory arrest, circulatory collapse). Patients should be told of the serious consequences of trying to overcome the opioid blockade. Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal: The symptoms of spontaneous opioid withdrawal, which are associated with the discontinuation of opioid in a dependent individual, are uncomfortable, but they are not generally believed to be severe or necessitate hospitalization. However, when withdrawal is precipitated abruptly, the resulting withdrawal syndrome can be severe enough to require hospitalization. To prevent occurrence of either precipitated withdrawal in patients dependent on opioids or exacerbation of a pre-existing subclinical withdrawal symptoms, opioid-dependent patients, including those being treated for alcohol dependence, should be opioid-free (including tramadol) before starting CONTRAVE treatment. An opioid-free interval of a minimum of 7 to 10 days is recommended for patients previously dependent on short-acting opioids, and those patients transitioning from buprenorphine or methadone may need as long as two weeks. Patients should be made aware of the risks associated with precipitated withdrawal and encouraged to give an accurate account of last opioid use. 5.5 Increase in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate CONTRAVE can cause an increase in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure as well as an increase in resting heart rate. In clinical practice with other bupropion-containing products, hypertension, in some cases severe and requiring acute treatment, has been reported. The clinical significance of the increases in blood pressure and heart rate observed with CONTRAVE treatment is unclear, especially for patients with cardiac and cerebrovascular disease, since patients with a history of myocardial infarction or stroke in the previous 6 months, life-threatening arrhythmias, or congestive heart failure were excluded from CONTRAVE clinical trials. Blood pressure and pulse should be measured prior to starting therapy with CONTRAVE and should be monitored at regular intervals consistent with usual clinical practice, particularly among patients with controlled hypertension prior to treatment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] . CONTRAVE should not be given to patients with uncontrolled hypertension [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . Among patients treated with CONTRAVE in placebo-controlled clinical trials, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was approximately 1 mmHg higher than baseline at Weeks 4 and 8, similar to baseline at Week 12, and approximately 1 mmHg below baseline between Weeks 24 and 56. In contrast, among patients treated with placebo, mean blood pressure was approximately 2 to 3 mmHg below baseline throughout the same time points, yielding statistically significant differences between the groups at every assessment during this period. The largest mean differences between the groups were observed during the first 12 weeks (treatment difference +1.8 to +2.4 mmHg systolic, all p<0.001; +1.7 to +2.1 mmHg diastolic, all p<0.001). For heart rate, at both Weeks 4 and 8, mean heart rate was statistically significantly higher (2.1 bpm) in the CONTRAVE group compared with the placebo group; at Week 52, the difference between groups was +1.7 bpm (p<0.001). In an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring substudy of 182 patients, the mean change from baseline in systolic blood pressure after 52 weeks of treatment was -0.2 mmHg for the CONTRAVE group and -2.8 mmHg for the placebo group (treatment difference, +2.6 mmHg, p=0.08); the mean change in diastolic blood pressure was +0.8 mmHg for the CONTRAVE group and -2.1 mmHg for the placebo group (treatment difference, +2.9 mmHg, p=0.004). A greater percentage of subjects had adverse reactions related to blood pressure or heart rate in the CONTRAVE group compared to the placebo group (6.3% vs 4.2%, respectively), primarily attributable to adverse reactions of Hypertension/Blood Pressure Increased (5.9% vs 4.0%, respectively). These events were observed in both patients with and without evidence of preexisting hypertension. In a trial that enrolled individuals with diabetes, 12.0% of patients in the CONTRAVE group and 6.5% in the placebo group had a blood pressure-related adverse reaction. 5.6 Allergic Reactions Anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reactions characterized by symptoms such as pruritus, urticaria, angioedema, and dyspnea requiring medical treatment have been reported in clinical trials with bupropion. In addition, there have been rare spontaneous postmarketing reports of erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and anaphylactic shock associated with bupropion. Instruct patients to discontinue CONTRAVE and consult a healthcare provider if they develop an allergic or anaphylactoid/anaphylactic reaction (e.g., skin rash, pruritus, hives, chest pain, edema, or shortness of breath) during treatment. Arthralgia, myalgia, fever with rash, and other symptoms suggestive of delayed hypersensitivity have been reported in association with bupropion. These symptoms may resemble serum sickness. 5.7 Hepatotoxicity Cases of hepatitis and clinically significant liver dysfunction were observed in association with naltrexone exposure during naltrexone clinical trials and in postmarketing reports for patients using naltrexone. Transient, asymptomatic hepatic transaminase elevations were also observed. When patients presented with elevated transaminases, there were often other potential causative or contributory etiologies identified, including pre-existing alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B and/or C infection, and concomitant usage of other potentially hepatotoxic drugs. Although clinically significant liver dysfunction is not typically recognized as a manifestation of opioid withdrawal, opioid withdrawal that is precipitated abruptly may lead to systemic sequelae, including acute liver injury. Patients should be warned of the risk of hepatic injury and advised to seek medical attention if they experience symptoms of acute hepatitis. Use of CONTRAVE should be discontinued in the event of symptoms and/or signs of acute hepatitis. In CONTRAVE clinical trials, there were no cases of elevated transaminases greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) in conjunction with an increase in bilirubin greater than two times ULN. 5.8 Activation of Mania Bupropion, a component of CONTRAVE, is a drug used for the treatment of depression. Antidepressant treatment can precipitate a manic, mixed, or hypomanic episode. The risk appears to be increased in patients with bipolar disorder or who have risk factors for bipolar disorder. Prior to initiating CONTRAVE, screen patients for a history of bipolar disorder and the presence of risk factors for bipolar disorder (e.g., family history of bipolar disorder, suicide, or depression). CONTRAVE is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression. No activation of mania or hypomania was reported in the clinical trials evaluating effects of CONTRAVE in obese patients; however, patients receiving antidepressant medications and patients with a history of bipolar disorder or recent hospitalization because of psychiatric illness were excluded from CONTRAVE clinical trials. 5.9 Angle-Closure Glaucoma The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including bupropion, a component of CONTRAVE, may trigger an angle-closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. 5.10 Potential Risk of Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Antidiabetic Therapy Weight loss may increase the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin and/or insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylureas). Measurement of blood glucose levels prior to starting CONTRAVE and during CONTRAVE treatment is recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes. Decreases in medication doses for antidiabetic medications which are non-glucose-dependent should be considered to mitigate the risk of hypoglycemia. If a patient develops hypoglycemia after starting CONTRAVE, appropriate changes should be made to the antidiabetic drug regimen.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in other sections of the labeling: Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] Seizures [see Contraindications ( 4 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Increase in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] Allergic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] Angle-Closure Glaucoma [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9 )] Most common adverse reactions (greater than or equal to 5%): nausea, constipation, headache, vomiting, dizziness, insomnia, dry mouth and diarrhea. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Nalpropion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-877-298-8340 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. CONTRAVE was evaluated for safety in five double-blind placebo controlled trials in 4,754 overweight or obese patients (3,239 patients treated with CONTRAVE and 1,515 patients treated with placebo) for a treatment period up to 56 weeks. The majority of patients were treated with CONTRAVE 32 mg/360 mg total daily dose. In addition, some patients were treated with other combination daily doses including naltrexone up to 50 mg and bupropion up to 400 mg. All subjects received study drug in addition to diet and exercise counseling. One trial (N=793) evaluated patients participating in an intensive behavioral modification program and another trial (N= 505) evaluated patients with type 2 diabetes. In these randomized, placebo-controlled trials, 2,545 patients received CONTRAVE 32 mg/360 mg for a mean treatment duration of 36 weeks (median, 56 weeks). Baseline patient characteristics included a mean age of 46 years, 82% women, 78% white, 25% with hypertension, 13% with type 2 diabetes, 56% with dyslipidemia, 25% with BMI greater than 40 kg/m 2 , and less than 2% with coronary artery disease. Dosing was initiated and increased weekly to reach the maintenance dose within 4 weeks. In CONTRAVE clinical trials, 24% of subjects receiving CONTRAVE and 12% of subjects receiving placebo discontinued treatment because of an adverse event. The most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation with CONTRAVE were nausea (6.3%), headache (1.7%) and vomiting (1.1%). Common Adverse Reactions Adverse reactions that were reported by greater than or equal to 2% of patients, and were more frequently reported by patients treated with CONTRAVE compared to placebo, are summarized in Table 3 . Table 3. Adverse Reactions Reported by Obese or Overweight Patients With an Incidence (%) of at Least 2% Among Patients Treated with CONTRAVE and More Common than with Placebo Adverse Reaction CONTRAVE 32 mg/360 mg N=2545 % Placebo N=1515 % Nausea 32.5 6.7 Constipation 19.2 7.2 Headache 17.6 10.4 Vomiting 10.7 2.9 Dizziness 9.9 3.4 Insomnia 9.2 5.9 Dry mouth 8.1 2.3 Diarrhea 7.1 5.2 Anxiety 4.2 2.8 Hot flush 4.2 1.2 Fatigue 4.0 3.4 Tremor 4.0 0.7 Upper abdominal pain 3.5 1.3 Viral gastroenteritis 3.5 2.6 Influenza 3.4 3.2 Tinnitus 3.3 0.6 Urinary tract infection 3.3 2.8 Hypertension 3.2 2.2 Abdominal pain 2.8 1.4 Hyperhidrosis 2.6 0.6 Irritability 2.6 1.8 Blood pressure increased 2.4 1.5 Dysgeusia 2.4 0.7 Rash 2.4 2.0 Muscle strain 2.2 1.7 Palpitations 2.1 0.9 Other Adverse Reactions The following additional adverse reactions were reported in less than 2% of patients treated with CONTRAVE but with an incidence at least twice that of placebo: Cardiac Disorders: tachycardia, myocardial infarction Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: vertigo, motion sickness Gastrointestinal Disorders: lower abdominal pain, eructation, lip swelling, hematochezia, hernia General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: feeling jittery, feeling abnormal, asthenia, thirst, feeling hot Hepatobiliary Disorders: cholecystitis Infections and Infestations: pneumonia, staphylococcal infection, kidney infection Investigations: increased blood creatinine, increased hepatic enzymes, decreased hematocrit Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: dehydration Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: intervertebral disc protrusion, jaw pain Nervous System Disorders: disturbance in attention, lethargy, intention tremor, balance disorder, memory impairment, amnesia, mental impairment, presyncope Psychiatric Disorders: abnormal dreams, nervousness, dissociation (feeling spacey), tension, agitation, mood swings Renal and Urinary Disorders: micturition urgency Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: vaginal hemorrhage, irregular menstruation, erectile dysfunction, vulvovaginal dryness Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: alopecia Psychiatric and Sleep Disorders In the one-year controlled trials of CONTRAVE, the proportion of patients reporting one or more adverse reactions related to psychiatric and sleep disorders was higher in the CONTRAVE 32/360 mg group than the placebo group (22.2% and 15.5%, respectively). These events were further categorized into sleep disorders (13.8% CONTRAVE, 8.4% placebo), depression (6.3% CONTRAVE, 5.9% placebo), and anxiety (6.1% CONTRAVE, 4.4% placebo). Patients who were 65 years or older experienced more psychiatric and sleep disorder adverse reactions in the CONTRAVE group (28.6%) compared to placebo (6.3%), although the sample size in this subgroup was small (56 CONTRAVE, 32 placebo); the majority of these events were insomnia (10.7% CONTRAVE, 3.1% placebo) and depression (7.1% CONTRAVE, 3.1% placebo). Neurocognitive Adverse Reactions Adverse reactions involving attention, dizziness, and syncope occurred more often in individuals randomized to CONTRAVE 32/360 mg group compared to placebo (15.0% and 5.5%, respectively). The most common cognitive-related adverse reactions were attention disorders (2.5% CONTRAVE, 0.6% placebo). Adverse reactions involving dizziness and syncope were more common in patients treated with CONTRAVE (10.6%) than in placebo-treated patients (3.6%); dizziness accounted for almost all of these reported events (10.4% CONTRAVE, 3.4% placebo). Dizziness was the primary reason for discontinuation for 0.9% and 0.3% of patients in the CONTRAVE and placebo groups, respectively. Increases in Serum Creatinine In the one-year controlled trials of CONTRAVE, larger mean increases in serum creatinine from baseline to trial endpoint were observed in the CONTRAVE group compared with the placebo group (0.07 mg/dL and 0.01 mg/dL, respectively) as well as from baseline to the maximum value during follow-up (0.15 mg/dL and 0.07 mg/dL, respectively). Increases in serum creatinine that exceeded the upper limit of normal and were also greater than or equal to 50% higher than baseline occurred in 0.6% of subjects receiving CONTRAVE compared to 0.1% receiving placebo. The observed increase in serum creatinine may be the result of OCT2 inhibition [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience Additional adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of CONTRAVE. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is generally not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Loss of consciousness, malaise
MAOIs: Increased risk of hypertensive reactions can occur when used concomitantly. ( 7.1 ) Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6: Bupropion inhibits CYP2D6 and can increase concentrations of: antidepressants, (e.g., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and many tricyclics), antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, risperidone and thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol) and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone and flecainide): Consider dose reduction when using with CONTRAVE. ( 7.3 ) Digoxin: May decrease plasma digoxin levels. Monitor digoxin levels. ( 7.3 ) Concomitant Treatment with CYP2B6 Inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine or clopidogrel) can increase bupropion exposure. Do not exceed one tablet twice daily when taken with CYP2B6 inhibitors. ( 2.5 , 7.4 ) CYP2B6 Inducers (e.g., ritonavir, lopinavir, efavirenz, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin) may reduce efficacy by reducing bupropion exposure, avoid concomitant use. ( 7.4 ) Drugs that Lower Seizure Threshold: Dose CONTRAVE with caution. ( 5.3 , 7.5 ) Dopaminergic Drugs (levodopa and amantadine): CNS toxicity can occur when used concomitantly with CONTRAVE. ( 7.6 ) Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions: CONTRAVE can cause false-positive urine test results for amphetamines. ( 7.8 ) 7.1 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Concomitant use of MAOIs and bupropion is contraindicated. Bupropion inhibits the re-uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and can increase the risk for hypertensive reactions when used concomitantly with drugs that also inhibit the re-uptake of dopamine or norepinephrine, including MAOIs. Studies in animals demonstrate that the acute toxicity of bupropion is enhanced by the MAOI phenelzine. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI and initiation of treatment with CONTRAVE. Conversely, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping CONTRAVE before starting an MAOI [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . 7.2 Opioid Analgesics Patients taking CONTRAVE may not fully benefit from treatment with opioid-containing medicines, such as cough and cold remedies, antidiarrheal preparations, and opioid analgesics. In patients requiring intermittent opiate treatment, CONTRAVE therapy should be temporarily discontinued and opiate dose should not be increased above the standard dose. CONTRAVE may be used with caution after chronic opioid use has been stopped for 7 to 10 days in order to prevent precipitation of withdrawal [see Contraindications ( 4 ) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . During CONTRAVE clinical studies, the use of concomitant opioid or opioid-like medications, including analgesics or antitussives, were excluded. 7.3 Potential for CONTRAVE to Affect Other Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6 In a clinical study, CONTRAVE (32 mg naltrexone/360 mg bupropion) daily was coadministered with a 50 mg dose of metoprolol (a CYP2D6 substrate). CONTRAVE increased metoprolol AUC and C max by approximately 4- and 2-fold, respectively, relative to metoprolol alone. Similar clinical drug interactions resulting in increased pharmacokinetic exposure of CYP2D6 substrates have also been observed with bupropion as a single agent with desipramine or venlafaxine. Coadministration of CONTRAVE with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 isozyme including certain antidepressants (SSRIs and many tricyclics), antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, risperidone and thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol) and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone and flecainide), should be approached with caution and should be initiated at the lower end of the dose range of the concomitant medication. If CONTRAVE is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving a drug metabolized by CYP2D6, the need to decrease the dose of the original medication should be considered, particularly for those concomitant medications with a narrow therapeutic index [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . Digoxin Coadministration of CONTRAVE with digoxin may decrease plasma digoxin levels. Monitor plasma digoxin levels in patients treated concomitantly with CONTRAVE and digoxin [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. 7.4 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect CONTRAVE Bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by CYP2B6. Therefore, the potential exists for drug interactions between CONTRAVE and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2B6. Inhibitors of CYP2B6: Ticlopidine and Clopidogrel: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can increase bupropion exposure but decrease hydroxybupropion exposure. During concomitant use with CYP2B6 inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine or clopidogrel), the CONTRAVE daily dose should not exceed two tablets (one tablet each morning and evening) [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . Inducers of CYP2B6: Ritonavir, Lopinavir, and Efavirenz: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can decrease bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure and may reduce efficacy. Avoiding concomitant use with ritonavir, lopinavir, or efavirenz is recommended [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . 7.5 Drugs That Lower Seizure Threshold Use extreme caution when coadministering CONTRAVE with other drugs that lower seizure threshold (e.g., antipsychotics, antidepressants, theophylline, or systemic corticosteroids). Use low initial doses and increase the dose gradually. Concomitant use of other bupropion-containing products is contraindicated [see Contraindications ( 4 ) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] . 7.6 Dopaminergic Drugs (Levodopa and Amantadine) Bupropion, levodopa, and amantadine have dopamine agonist effects. CNS toxicity has been reported when bupropion was coadministered with levodopa or amantadine. Adverse reactions have included restlessness, agitation, tremor, ataxia, gait disturbance, vertigo, and dizziness. It is presumed that the toxicity results from cumulative dopamine agonist effects. Use caution and monitor for such adverse reactions when administering CONTRAVE concomitantly with these drugs. 7.7 Use with Alcohol In postmarketing experience, there have been rare reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients who were drinking alcohol during treatment with bupropion. The consumption of alcohol during treatment with CONTRAVE should be minimized or avoided. 7.8 Drug-Laboratory Test Interactions False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for amphetamines have been reported in patients taking bupropion. This is due to lack of specificity of some screening tests. False-positive test results may result even following discontinuation of bupropion therapy. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish bupropion from amphetamines.
Use In Specific Populations
Nursing Mothers: Discontinue drug or nursing. ( 8.3 ) Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness not established and use not recommended. ( 8.4 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Category X Risk Summary CONTRAVE is contraindicated during pregnancy, because weight loss offers no potential benefit to a pregnant woman and may result in fetal harm. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard of maternal weight loss to the fetus. Clinical Considerations A minimum weight gain, and no weight loss, is currently recommended for all pregnant women, including those who are already overweight or obese, due to the obligatory weight gain that occurs in maternal tissues during pregnancy. Human Data There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CONTRAVE in pregnant women. In clinical studies, 21 (0.7%) of 3,024 women became pregnant while taking CONTRAVE: 11 carried to term and gave birth to a healthy infant, three had elective abortions, four had spontaneous abortions, and the outcome of three pregnancies were unknown. Data from the international bupropion Pregnancy Registry (675 first trimester exposures) and a retrospective cohort study using the United Healthcare database (1,213 first trimester exposures) did not show an increased risk for malformations overall. No increased risk for cardiovascular malformations overall has been observed after bupropion exposure during the first trimester. The prospectively observed rate of cardiovascular malformations in pregnancies with exposure to bupropion in the first trimester from the international Pregnancy Registry was 1.3% (9 cardiovascular malformations out of 675 first-trimester maternal bupropion exposures), which is similar to the background rate of cardiovascular malformations (approximately 1%). Data from the United Healthcare database and a case-control study (6,853 infants with cardiovascular malformations and 5,763 with non-cardiovascular malformations) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) did not show an increased risk for cardiovascular malformations overall after bupropion exposure during the first trimester. Study findings on bupropion exposure during the first trimester and risk for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) are inconsistent and do not allow conclusions regarding a possible association. The United Healthcare database lacked sufficient power to evaluate this association; the NBDPS found increased risk for LVOTO (n = 10; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2, 5.7), and the Slone Epidemiology case control study did not find increased risk for LVOTO. Study findings on bupropion exposure during the first trimester and risk for ventricular septal defect (VSD) are inconsistent and do not allow conclusions regarding a possible association. The Slone Epidemiology Study found an increased risk for VSD following first trimester maternal bupropion exposure (n = 17; adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 5.0) but did not find increased risk for any other cardiovascular malformations studied (including LVOTO as above). The NBDPS and United Healthcare database study did not find an association between first trimester maternal bupropion exposure and VSD. For the findings of LVOTO and VSD, the studies were limited by the small number of exposed cases, inconsistent findings among studies, and the potential for chance findings from multiple comparisons in case control studies. Animal Data Reproduction and developmental studies have not been conducted for the combined products naltrexone and bupropion in CONTRAVE. Safety margins were estimated using body surface area exposure (mg/m 2 ) based on a body weight of 100 kg. Separate studies with bupropion and naltrexone have been conducted in pregnant rats and rabbits. Naltrexone administered orally has been shown to increase the incidence of early fetal loss in rats administered ≥30 mg/kg/day (180 mg/m 2 /day) and rabbits administered ≥60 mg/kg/day (720 mg/m 2 /day), doses at least 15 and 60 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of the naltrexone component in CONTRAVE on a mg/m 2 basis. There was no evidence of teratogenicity when naltrexone was administered orally to rats and rabbits during the period of major organogenesis at doses up to 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 100 and 200 times the recommended therapeutic dose, respectively, on a mg/m 2 basis). Rats do not form appreciable quantities of the major human metabolite, 6-beta-naltrexol; therefore, the potential reproductive toxicity of the metabolite in rats is not known. Bupropion was administered orally in studies conducted in rats and rabbits at doses up to 450 and 150 mg/kg/day, respectively (approximately 20 and 15 times the MRHD, respectively, of the bupropion component in CONTRAVE on a mg/m 2 basis), during the period of organogenesis. No clear evidence of teratogenic activity was found in either species; however, in rabbits, slightly increased incidences of fetal malformations and skeletal variations were observed at the lowest dose tested (25 mg/kg/day, approximately 2 times the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) and greater. Decreased fetal weights were seen at 50 mg/kg and greater (approximately 5 times the MRHD of the bupropion component in CONTRAVE on a mg/m 2 basis). When rats were administered bupropion at oral doses of up to 300 mg/kg/day (approximately 15 times the MRHD of the bupropion component in CONTRAVE on a mg/m 2 basis) prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation, there were no apparent adverse effects on offspring development. 8.3 Nursing Mothers The constituents and metabolites of CONTRAVE have been shown to be secreted in human milk. Transfer of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol into human milk has been reported with oral naltrexone. Bupropion and its metabolites are also secreted in human milk. CONTRAVE is not recommended for nursing mothers. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of CONTRAVE in pediatric patients below the age of 18 have not been established and the use of CONTRAVE is not recommended in pediatric patients. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 3,239 subjects who participated in clinical trials with CONTRAVE, 62 (2%) were 65 years and older and none were 75 years and older. Clinical studies of CONTRAVE did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Older individuals may be more sensitive to the central nervous system adverse effects of CONTRAVE. Naltrexone and bupropion are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to CONTRAVE may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. CONTRAVE should be used with caution in patients over 65 years of age. 8.6 Renal Impairment In a pharmacokinetic study conducted for CONTRAVE in subjects with renal impairment (mild, moderate and severe), exposure to naltrexone metabolite, 6-beta naltrexol, and bupropion metabolites, threohydrobupropion and erythrohydrobupropion, was increased. Therefore, the maximum recommended daily maintenance dose for CONTRAVE is two tablets (one tablet each morning and evening) in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment. No dose adjustment is required in patients with mild renal impairment. CONTRAVE is not recommended for use in patients with end-stage renal disease [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . 8.7 Hepatic Impairment CONTRAVE has not been evaluated in subjects with hepatic impairment. Based on information available for the individual constituents, systemic exposure is significantly higher for bupropion and metabolites (two- to three-fold), and naltrexone and their metabolites (up to 10-fold higher) in subjects with moderate-to-severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, the maximum recommended daily dose of CONTRAVE is one tablet in the morning in patients with hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] .