This information is not for clinical use. These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Ceftriaxone Sodium safely and effectively. Before taking Ceftriaxone Sodium please consult with your doctor. See full prescribing information for Ceftriaxone Sodium.
Indications And Usage
Before instituting treatment with ceftriaxone, appropriate specimens should be obtained for isolation of the causative organism and for determination of its susceptibility to the drug. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ceftriaxone for injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, ceftriaxone for injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Ceftriaxone for injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms: Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis or Serratia marcescens. Acute Bacterial Otitis Media Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains) or Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains). NOTE: In one study lower clinical cure rates were observed with a single dose of ceftriaxone compared to 10 days of oral therapy. In a second study comparable cure rates were observed between single dose ceftriaxone and the comparator. The potentially lower clinical cure rate of ceftriaxone should be balanced against the potential advantages of parenteral therapy (see Clinical Studies ). Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii*, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides fragilis * or Peptostreptococcus species. Urinary Tract Infections (complicated and uncomplicated) Caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Uncomplicated Gonorrhea (cervical/urethral and rectal) Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including both penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains, and pharyngeal gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ceftriaxone sodium, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added. Bacterial Septicemia Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bone and Joint Infections Caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter species. Intra-abdominal Infections Caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium species (Note: most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant) or Peptostreptococcus species. Meningitis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone has also been used successfully in a limited number of cases of meningitis and shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis * and Escherichia coli*. *Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections. Surgical Prophylaxis The preoperative administration of a single 1 g dose of ceftriaxone may reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients, such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis not requiring therapeutic antimicrobials, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones) and in surgical patients for whom infection at the operative site would present serious risk (e.g., during coronary artery bypass surgery). Although ceftriaxone has been shown to have been as effective as cefazolin in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery, no placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate any cephalosporin antibiotic in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery. When administered prior to surgical procedures for which it is indicated, a single 1 g dose of ceftriaxone provides protection from most infections due to susceptible organisms throughout the course of the procedure.
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Dosage And Administration
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Hypersensitivity Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone, any of its excipients or to any other cephalosporin. Patients with previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin and other beta lactam antibacterial agents may be at greater risk of hypersensitivity to ceftriaxone (see Warnings – Hypersensitivity ). Neonates Premature neonates: Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in premature neonates up to a postmenstrual age of 41 weeks (gestational age + chronological age). Hyperbilirubinemic neonates: Hyperbilirubinemic neonates should not be treated with ceftriaxone for injection. Ceftriaxone can displace bilirubin from its binding to serum albumin, leading to a risk of bilirubin encephalopathy in these patients. Neonates Requiring Calcium Containing IV Solutions Ceftriaxone for injection is contraindicated in neonates (≤ 28 days) if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see Clinical Pharmacology, Warnings and Dosage and Administration ). Cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both ceftriaxone for injection and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates. Lidocaine Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone solutions containing lidocaine is contraindicated. When lidocaine solution is used as a solvent with ceftriaxone for intramuscular injection, exclude all contraindications to lidocaine. Refer to the prescribing information of lidocaine.
Ceftriaxone is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions, which were considered to be related to ceftriaxone therapy or of uncertain etiology, were observed: Local Reactions Pain, induration and tenderness was 1% overall. Phlebitis was reported in <1% after IV administration. The incidence of warmth, tightness or induration was 17% (3/17) after IM administration of 350 mg/mL and 5% (1/20) after IM administration of 250 mg/mL. General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions Injection site pain (0.6%). Hypersensitivity Rash (1.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were pruritus, fever or chills. Infections and Infestations Genital fungal infection (0.1%) Hematologic Eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (5.1%) and leukopenia (2.1%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were anemia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the prothrombin time. Blood and Lymphatic Disorders Granulocytopenia (0.9%), coagulopathy (0.4%) Gastrointestinal Diarrhea/loose stools (2.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were nausea or vomiting, and dysgeusia. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see Warnings ). Hepatic Elevations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (3.1%) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (3.3%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Renal Elevations of the BUN (1.2%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of creatinine and the presence of casts in the urine. Central Nervous System Headache or dizziness were reported occasionally (<1%). Genitourinary Moniliasis or vaginitis were reported occasionally (<1%). Miscellaneous Diaphoresis and flushing were reported occasionally (<1%). Investigations Blood creatinine increased (0.6%). Other rarely observed adverse reactions (<0.1%) include abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anaphylaxis, basophilia, biliary lithiasis, bronchospasm, colitis, dyspepsia, epistaxis, flatulence, gallbladder sludge, glycosuria, hematuria, jaundice, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, nephrolithiasis, palpitations, a decrease in the prothrombin time, renal precipitations, seizures, and serum sickness. Post marketing Experience In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials, the following adverse experiences have been reported during clinical practice in patients treated with ceftriaxone. Data are generally insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation. A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates. Gastrointestinal Pancreatitis, stomatitis and glossitis. Genitourinary Oliguria, ureteric obstruction, post-renal acute renal failure. Dermatologic Exanthema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, edema; acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and isolated cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell’s syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported. Hematological Changes Isolated cases of agranulocytosis (< 500/mm3) have been reported, most of them after 10 days of treatment and following total doses of 20 g or more. Nervous System Disorders Convulsion Other, Adverse Reactions Symptomatic precipitation of ceftriaxone calcium salt in the gallbladder, kernicterus, oliguria, and anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions. Cephalosporin Class Adverse Reactions In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftriaxone, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory test results have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics: Adverse Reactions Allergic reactions, drug fever, serum sickness-like reaction, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, reversible hyperactivity, hypertonia, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, and superinfection. Altered Laboratory Tests Positive direct Coombs’ test, false-positive test for urinary glucose, and elevated LDH (see Precautions ). Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see Dosage and Administration ). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.