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Indications And Usage
BYSTOLIC is a beta-adrenergic blocking agent indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. (1.1) 1.1 Hypertension BYSTOLIC is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to lower blood pressure [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1 )]. BYSTOLIC may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )]. Lowering blood pressure reduces the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, primarily strokes and myocardial infarctions. These benefits have been seen in controlled trials of antihypertensive drugs from a wide variety of pharmacologic classes, including the class to which this drug principally belongs. There are no controlled trials demonstrating risk reduction with BYSTOLIC. Control of high blood pressure should be part of comprehensive cardiovascular risk management, including, as appropriate, lipid control, diabetes management, antithrombotic therapy, smoking cessation, exercise, and limited sodium intake. Many patients will require more than one drug to achieve blood pressure goals. For specific advice on goals and management, see published guidelines, such as those of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC). Numerous antihypertensive drugs, from a variety of pharmacologic classes and with different mechanisms of action, have been shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and it can be concluded that it is blood pressure reduction, and not some other pharmacologic property of the drugs, that is largely responsible for those benefits. The largest and most consistent cardiovascular outcome benefit has been a reduction in the risk of stroke, but reductions in myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality also have been seen regularly. Elevated systolic or diastolic pressure causes increased cardiovascular risk, and the absolute risk increase per mmHg is greater at higher blood pressures, so that even modest reductions of severe hypertension can provide substantial benefit. Relative risk reduction from blood pressure reduction is similar across populations with varying absolute risk, so the absolute benefit is greater in patients who are at higher risk independent of their hypertension (for example, patients with diabetes or hyperlipidemia), and such patients would be expected to benefit from more aggressive treatment to a lower blood pressure goal. Some antihypertensive drugs have smaller blood pressure effects (as monotherapy) in black patients, and many antihypertensive drugs have additional approved indications and effects (e.g., on angina, heart failure, or diabetic kidney disease). These considerations may guide selection of therapy.
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Dosage Forms And Strengths
BYSTOLIC is available as tablets for oral administration containing nebivolol hydrochloride equivalent to 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg of nebivolol. BYSTOLIC tablets are triangular-shaped, biconvex, unscored, differentiated by color and are engraved with “FL” on one side and the number of mg (2 ½, 5, 10, or 20) on the other side. Tablets: 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg (3)
BYSTOLIC is contraindicated in the following conditions: Severe bradycardia Heart block greater than first degree Patients with cardiogenic shock Decompensated cardiac failure Sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place) Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh >B) Patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product. Severe bradycardia (4) Heart block greater than first degree (4) Patients with cardiogenic shock (4) Decompensated cardiac failure (4) Sick sinus syndrome (unless a permanent pacemaker is in place) (4) Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh >B) (4) Hypersensitive to any component of this product (4)
Warning and Cautions
Acute exacerbation of coronary artery disease upon cessation of therapy: Do not abruptly discontinue. (5.1) Diabetes: Monitor glucose as β-blockers may mask symptoms of hypoglycemia. (5.5) 5.1 Abrupt Cessation of Therapy Do not abruptly discontinue BYSTOLIC therapy in patients with coronary artery disease. Severe exacerbation of angina, myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias have been reported in patients with coronary artery disease following the abrupt discontinuation of therapy with β-blockers. Myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmias may occur with or without preceding exacerbation of the angina pectoris. Caution patients without overt coronary artery disease against interruption or abrupt discontinuation of therapy. As with other β-blockers, when discontinuation of BYSTOLIC is planned, carefully observe and advise patients to minimize physical activity. Taper BYSTOLIC over 1 to 2 weeks when possible. If the angina worsens or acute coronary insufficiency develops, re-start BYSTOLIC promptly, at least temporarily. 5. 2 Angina and Acute Myocardial Infarction BYSTOLIC was not studied in patients with angina pectoris or who had a recent MI. 5. 3 Bronchospastic Diseases In general, patients with bronchospastic diseases should not receive β-blockers. 5. 4 Anesthesia and Major Surgery Because beta-blocker withdrawal has been associated with an increased risk of MI and chest pain, patients already on beta-blockers should generally continue treatment throughout the perioperative period. If BYSTOLIC is to be continued perioperatively, monitor patients closely when anesthetic agents which depress myocardial function, such as ether, cyclopropane, and trichloroethylene, are used. If β-blocking therapy is withdrawn prior to major surgery, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risks of general anesthesia and surgical procedures. The β-blocking effects of BYSTOLIC can be reversed by β-agonists, e.g., dobutamine or isoproterenol. However, such patients may be subject to protracted severe hypotension. Additionally, difficulty in restarting and maintaining the heartbeat has been reported with β-blockers. 5. 5 Diabetes and Hypoglycemia β-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective β-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. It is not known whether nebivolol has these effects. Advise patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia and diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents about these possibilities. 5. 6 Thyrotoxicosis β-blockers may mask clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of β-blockers may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or may precipitate a thyroid storm. 5. 7 Peripheral Vascular Disease β-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. 5. 8 Non-dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blockers Because of significant negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in patients treated with β-blockers and calcium channel blockers of the verapamil and diltiazem type, monitor the ECG and blood pressure in patients treated concomitantly with these agents. 5. 9 Use with CYP2D6 Inhibitors Nebivolol exposure increases with inhibition of CYP2D6 [see Drug Interactions ( 7 ) ]. The dose of BYSTOLIC may need to be reduced. 5.1 0 Impaired Renal Function Renal clearance of nebivolol is decreased in patients with severe renal impairment. BYSTOLIC has not been studied in patients receiving dialysis [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.4 ) and Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )]. 5.1 1 Impaired Hepatic Function Metabolism of nebivolol is decreased in patients with moderate hepatic impairment. BYSTOLIC has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.4 ) and Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )]. 5.1 2 Risk of Anaphylactic Reactions While taking β-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic challenge. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions. 5.1 3 Pheochromocytoma In patients with known or suspected pheochromocytoma, initiate an α-blocker prior to the use of any β-blocker.
Most common adverse reactions ( 6.1 ): Headache, fatigue To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, Contact Allergan at 1-800-678-1605 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Studies Experience BYSTOLIC has been evaluated for safety in patients with hypertension and in patients with heart failure. The observed adverse reaction profile was consistent with the pharmacology of the drug and the health status of the patients in the clinical trials. Adverse reactions reported for each of these patient populations are provided below. Excluded are adverse reactions considered too general to be informative and those not reasonably associated with the use of the drug because they were associated with the condition being treated or are very common in the treated population. The data described below reflect worldwide clinical trial exposure to BYSTOLIC in 6545 patients, including 5038 patients treated for hypertension and the remaining 1507 subjects treated for other cardiovascular diseases. Doses ranged from 0.5 mg to 40 mg. Patients received BYSTOLIC for up to 24 months, with over 1900 patients treated for at least 6 months, and approximately 1300 patients for more than one year. HYPERTENSION: In placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing BYSTOLIC with placebo, discontinuation of therapy due to adverse reactions was reported in 2.8% of patients treated with nebivolol and 2.2% of patients given placebo. The most common adverse reactions that led to discontinuation of BYSTOLIC were headache (0.4%), nausea (0.2%) and bradycardia (0.2%). Table 1 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions that were reported in three 12-week, placebo-controlled monotherapy trials involving 1597 hypertensive patients treated with either 5 mg, 10 mg, or 20-40 mg of BYSTOLIC and 205 patients given placebo and for which the rate of occurrence was at least 1% of patients treated with nebivolol and greater than the rate for those treated with placebo in at least one dose group. Table 1. Treatment-Emergent Adverse Reactions with an Incidence (over 6 weeks) ≥ 1% in BYSTOLIC-Treated Patients and at a Higher Frequency than Placebo-Treated Patients System Organ Class – Preferred Term Placebo (n = 205) (%) Nebivolol 5 mg (n = 459) (%) Nebivolol 10 mg (n = 461) (%) Nebivolol 20-40 mg (n = 677) (%) Cardiac Disorders Bradycardia 0 0 0 1 Gastrointestinal Disorders Diarrhea 2 2 2 3 Nausea 0 1 3 2 General Disorders Fatigue 1 2 2 5 Chest pain 0 0 1 1 Peripheral edema 0 1 1 1 Nervous System Disorders Headache 6 9 6 7 Dizziness 2 2 3 4 Psychiatric Disorders Insomnia 0 1 1 1 Respiratory Disorders Dyspnea 0 0 1 1 Skin and subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Rash 0 0 1 1 Listed below are other reported adverse reactions with an incidence of at least 1% in the more than 4300 patients treated with BYSTOLIC in controlled or open-label trials except for those already appearing in Table 1, terms too general to be informative, minor symptoms, or adverse reactions unlikely to be attributable to drug because they are common in the population. These adverse reactions were in most cases observed at a similar frequency in placebo-treated patients in the controlled studies. Body as a W hole: asthenia. Gastrointestinal System Disorders: abdominal pain Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: hypercholesterolemia Nervous System Disorders: paraesthesia 6.2 Laboratory Abnormalities In controlled monotherapy trials of hypertensive patients, BYSTOLIC was associated with an increase in BUN, uric acid, triglycerides and a decrease in HDL cholesterol and platelet count. 6.3 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified from spontaneous reports of BYSTOLIC received worldwide and have not been listed elsewhere. These adverse reactions have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of seriousness, frequency of reporting or potential causal connection to BYSTOLIC. Adverse reactions common in the population have generally been omitted. Because these adverse reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to BYSTOLIC exposure: abnormal hepatic function (including increased AST, ALT and bilirubin), acute pulmonary edema, acute renal failure, atrioventricular block (both second and third degree), bronchospasm, erectile dysfunction, hypersensitivity (including urticaria, allergic vasculitis and rare reports of angioedema), hypotension, myocardial infarction, pruritus, psoriasis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, peripheral ischemia/claudication, somnolence, syncope, thrombocytopenia, various rashes and skin disorders, vertigo, and vomiting.
CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitors may increase nebivolol levels. (7.1) Reserpine or clonidine may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. (7.2) Both digitalis glycosides and β-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. (7.3) Verapamil- or diltiazem-type calcium channel blockers may cause excessive reductions in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac contractility. (7.4) 7.1 CYP2D6 Inhibitors Use caution when BYSTOLIC is co-administered with CYP2D6 inhibitors (quinidine, propafenone, fluoxetine, paroxetine, etc.) [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.5 )]. 7.2 Hypotensive Agents Do not use BYSTOLIC with other β-blockers. Closely monitor patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, because the added β-blocking action of BYSTOLIC may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients who are receiving BYSTOLIC and clonidine, discontinue BYSTOLIC for several days before the gradual tapering of clonidine. 7.3 Digitalis Glycosides Both digitalis glycosides and β-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia. 7.4 Calcium Channel Blockers BYSTOLIC can exacerbate the effects of myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide.
Use In Specific Populations
Lactation: Breastfeeding is not recommended. (8.2) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Available data regarding use of BYSTOLIC in pregnant women are insufficient to determine whether there are drug-associated risks of adverse developmental outcomes. There are risks to the mother and fetus associated with poorly controlled hypertension in pregnancy. The use of beta blockers during the third trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk of hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression in the neonate [see Clinical Considerations]. Oral administration of nebivolol to pregnant rats during organogenesis resulted in embryofetal and perinatal lethality at doses approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Hypertension in pregnancy increases the maternal risk for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, premature delivery, and delivery complications (e.g., need for cesarean section, and post-partum hemorrhage). Hypertension increases the fetal risk for intrauterine growth restriction and intrauterine death. Pregnant women with hypertension should be carefully monitored and managed accordingly. Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions Neonates of women with hypertension, who are treated with beta-blockers during the third trimester of pregnancy, may be at increased risk for hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia, and respiratory depression. Observe newborns for symptoms of hypotension, bradycardia, hypoglycemia and respiratory depression and manage accordingly. Data Animal Data Nebivolol was shown to increase embryo-fetal and perinatal lethality in rats at approximately 1.2 times the MRHD or 40 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. Decreased pup body weights occurred at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg in rats, when exposed during the perinatal period (late gestation, parturition and lactation). At 5 mg/kg and higher doses (1.2 times the MRHD), prolonged gestation, dystocia and reduced maternal care were produced with corresponding increases in late fetal deaths and stillbirths and decreased birth weight, live litter size and pup survival. These events occurred only when nebivolol was given during the perinatal period (late gestation, parturition and lactation). Insufficient numbers of pups survived at 5 mg/kg to evaluate the offspring for reproductive performance. In studies in which pregnant rats were given nebivolol during organogenesis, reduced fetal body weights were observed at maternally toxic doses of 20 and 40 mg/kg/day (5 and 10 times the MRHD), and small reversible delays in sternal and thoracic ossification associated with the reduced fetal body weights and a small increase in resorption occurred at 40 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD). No adverse effects on embryo-fetal viability, sex, weight or morphology were observed in studies in which nebivolol was given to pregnant rabbits at doses as high as 20 mg/kg/day (10 times the MRHD). 8. 2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of nebivolol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Nebivolol is present in rat milk [see Data]. Because of the potential for β-blockers to produce serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, especially bradycardia, BYSTOLIC is not recommended during nursing. Data In lactating rats, maximum milk levels of unchanged nebivolol were observed at 4 hours after single and repeat doses of 2.5 mg/kg/day. The daily dose (mg/kg body weight) ingested by a rat pup is 0.3% of the dam dose for unchanged nebivolol. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Pediatric studies in ages newborn to 18 years old have not been conducted because of incomplete characterization of developmental toxicity and possible adverse effects on long-term fertility [see Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1 )]. Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data Daily oral doses of nebivolol to juvenile rats from post-natal day 14 to post-natal day 27 showed sudden unexplained death at exposures equal to those in human poor metabolizers given a single dose of 10 mg. No mortality was seen at half the adult human exposure. In surviving rats, cardiomyopathy was seen at exposures greater than or equal to the human exposure. Male rat pups exposed to twice the human exposure showed decreases in total sperm count as well as decreases in the total and percentage of motile sperm. 8.5 Geriatric Use Of the 2800 patients in the U.S. sponsored placebo-controlled clinical hypertension studies, 478 patients were 65 years of age or older. No overall differences in efficacy or in the incidence of adverse events were observed between older and younger patients. 8.6 Heart Failure In a placebo-controlled trial of 2128 patients (1067 BYSTOLIC, 1061 placebo) over 70 years of age with chronic heart failure receiving a maximum dose of 10 mg per day for a median of 20 months, no worsening of heart failure was reported with nebivolol compared to placebo. However, if heart failure worsens consider discontinuation of BYSTOLIC.